Feeding the German Eagle: Soviet Economic Aid to Nazi Germany, 1933-1941

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Greenwood Publishing Group, 1999 - 265 pages

The dramatic story of Hitler and Stalin's marriage of convenience has been recounted frequently over the past 60 years, but with remarkably little consensus. As the first English-language study to analyze the development, extent, and importance of the Nazi-Soviet economic relationship from Hitler's ascension to power to the launching of Operation Barbarossa in June 1941, this book highlights the crucial role that Soviet economic aid played in Germany's early successes in World War II. When Hitler's rearmament efforts left Germany dangerously short of raw materials in 1939, Stalin was able to offer valuable supplies of oil, manganese, grain, and rubber. In exchange, the Soviet Union would gain territory and obtain the technology and equipment necessary for its own rearmament efforts.

However, by the summer of 1941, Stalin's well-calculated plan had gone awry. Germany's continuing reliance on Soviet raw materials would, Stalin hoped, convince Hitler that he could not afford to invade the USSR. As a result, the Soviets continued to supply the Reich with the resources that would later carry the Wehrmacht to the gates of Moscow and nearly cost the Soviets the war. The extensive use in this study of neglected source material in the German archives helps resolve the long-standing debate over whether Stalin's foreign policy was one of expansionism or appeasement.

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Contents

NOTES
106
GAS AND GRAIN FOR COAL AND CRUISERS
109
GÖRING THE GOBETWEEN MARCH 29
111
OUR FRIEND MOLOTOV? APRIL 9
113
WAR IN THE WEST MAY 10
114
FINAL CONTRACTS MAY 28
117
NOTES
118
DELIVERING THE GOODS
123

THE PURGES MARCH 1 1938
26
SCHULENBURGS PLAN DECEMBER 19 1938
28
SCHNURRES ABORTED VISIT JANUARY 28 1939
31
SCHULENBURG IN MOSCOW MARCH 11 1939
34
NOTES
36
TALKING ABOUT TALKING
41
MOLOTOVS MAYBE MAY 20
43
MORE SOUNDINGS JUNE 17
46
TALKS REOPENED JULY 21
47
NOTES
50
RESTORED ECONOMIC PARTNERSHIP
53
ECONOMIC END GAME AUGUST 12
55
THE FINAL GOAHEAD AUGUST 19
56
NOTES
58
TOWARD AN ECONOMIC ALLIANCE
61
WAR BEGINS SEPTEMBER 1
63
DIVIDING POLAND SEPTEMBER 17
65
COLLUSION IN THE KREMLIN SEPTEMBER 28
69
NOTES
72
THE GERMAN PLAN
77
THE SOVIET SLOW AND STEADY OCTOBER 22
79
RITTER RETURNS OCTOBER 26
81
NOTES
82
THE SOVIET PLAN
85
THE SOVIET OFFER NOVEMBER 30
88
THE DELEGATES DEPART DECEMBER 13
90
NOTES
93
THE FINAL PLAN PART I
97
SECOND MOSCOW ECONOMIC SUMMIT JANUARY 29 1940
100
THIRD MOSCOW ECONOMIC SUMMIT FEBRUARY 8
103
SIGNING ON THE DOTTED LINE FEBRUARY 11
104
BESSARABIA AND BUKOVINA JUNE 28
125
HITLER TURNS EAST JULY 21
126
STALIN TURNS WEST AUGUST 6
128
NOTES
129
NEW PROBLEMS ADDRESSED
133
RIDING THE RAILS OCTOBER 1
135
ONCE MORE INTO THE BREECH OCTOBER 28
137
NOTES
139
THE FINAL PLAN PART II
143
TARIFFS AND TOLLS DECEMBER 1
145
SOVIETS DEMAND SIMULTANEOUS SETTLEMENT DECEMBER 22
149
SIGN HERE AND HERE AND SO ON JANUARY 10 1941
150
NOTES
153
GRAIN FOR GUNS
159
THE EASTERN CONNECTION MARCH 18
161
YUGOSLAVIA APRIL 6
163
NOTES
165
GERMANY BITES THE HAND THAT FED IT
169
CAUTIOUS APPEASEMENT MAY 10
170
THE LAST SHIPMENTS JUNE 22
171
COUNTING THE COSTS 194144
173
NOTES
175
CONCLUSION
179
NOTES
183
TABLES
185
NOTES
222
GERMANSOVIET ECONOMIC TREATIES
227
BIBLIOGRAPHY
241
INDEX
255
Copyright

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Page 41 - The tasks of the party in the sphere of foreign policy are: 1. To continue the policy of peace and of strengthening business relations with all countries. 2. To be cautious and not allow our country to be drawn into conflicts by warmongers who are accustomed to have others pull the chestnuts out of the fire for them.
Page 59 - Everything I undertake is directed against the Russians. If the West is too stupid and blind to grasp this, then I shall be compelled to come to an agreement with the Russians, beat the West and then after their defeat turn against the Soviet Union with all my forces. I need the Ukraine so that they can't starve us out, as happened in the last war.
Page 231 - ... exchanged between the Chairman of the German Economic Delegation, Dr. Schnurre, and the People's Commissar for Foreign Trade of the USSR, Herr AI Mikoyan, in connection with the "Agreement of January 10, 1941, concerning reciprocal deliveries in the second treaty period on the basis of the Economic Agreement between the German Reich and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics of February 11, 1940.
Page 71 - The Government of the USSR shall place no obstacles in the way of Reich nationals and other persons of German descent residing in the territories under its jurisdiction, if they desire to migrate to Germany or to the territories under German jurisdiction. It agrees that such removals shall be carried out by agents of the Government of the Reich in cooperation with the competent local authorities and that the property rights of the emigrants shall be protected. A corresponding obligation is assumed...
Page 43 - There exists for Russia no reason why she should not live with us on a normal footing. And from normal, the relations might become better and better.
Page 239 - Schulenburg, Plenipotentiary of the Government of the German Reich, on the one hand, and the Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR, VM Molotov, Plenipotentiary of the Government of the USSR, on the other hand, have agreed upon the following: 1. The Government of the German Reich renounces its claim to the strip of Lithuanian territory which is mentioned in the Secret Supplementary Protocol of September 28, 1939 and which has been marked on the map attached to this Protocol ;...
Page 47 - Union faced the present world situation with hesitation. She was vacillating between three possibilities, namely the conclusion of the pact with England and France, a further dilatory treatment of the pact negotiations, and a rapprochement with Germany.
Page 239 - Secret Protocol The German Ambassador, Count von der Schulenburg, Plenipotentiary of the Government of the German Reich, on the one hand, and the Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR, VM Molotov, Plenipotentiary of the Government of the USSR, on the other hand, have agreed upon the following : 1. The Government of the German Reich renounces its claim to the strip of Lithuanian territory which is mentioned in the Secret...
Page 13 - All classes in Germany are looking towards Russia for one reason or another. The extremists of the Left look upon her as the realization of their own political ideals; the pan-Germans look upon her as providing the only possible outlet for surplus population and compensation for the loss of colonies. Officers think that she may provide employment, which is no longer possible in their own country. Industrialists think that she will provide employment for capital and ultimately be the means of paying...

About the author (1999)

EDWARD E. ERICSON III is Chairman of the Department of History at John Brown University in Siloam Springs, Arkansas./e He has published articles and reviews in a variety of historical and general journals.

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