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"Whereupon, returning with sorrow to the English host, A.D. 1138. (we) prepared for battle.”*

Walter Espec then ascended a platform which was made about the standard, and did, by the following oration, encourage the English army to fight :

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Putting them in mind of the famous exploits which had Speech of been done of old by the valor of their ancesters in foreign Walter Espec parts, and in particular against the Scottish nation, assuring them that to vindicate the vile profanations which that barbarous people had made in all holy places where they came, St. Michael and his angels, and St. Peter, with the Apostles (whose churches were by them made stables) would fight, yea, the martyrs with their glorious company, whose altars they had defiled, would lead them on: likewise, that the sacred virgin would intercede for them, by her devout prayers, and that Christ Himself would take up His shield, and rise up to their aid." And having ended his speech, turned himself to the Earl of Albermarl, and gave him his hand, saying, I faithfully promise you that I will conquer the Scotts this day, or lose my life by them.'

"Which courageous expression did put such spirit into all the noblemen there, that each of them made the like vow to the other, and to take away all opportunity of flight, sent their horses to a distance, resolving to fight on foot, and conquer or lose their lives."t

Thurstan, archbishop of York, was prevented by illness from accompanying the army further than Thirsk; he therefore commissioned Ralph, bishop of Orkney, to fill his place, who, standing on an eminence in the centre of the English army, roused their courage with words to this effect :

"Brave nobles of England, Normans by birth, for it is Speech_of well that on the eve of battle you should call to mind who Bishop Ralph you are, and from whom you are sprung: no one ever withstood you with success. Gallant France fell beneath your arms; fertile England you subdued; rich Apulia flourished again under your auspices; Jerusalem, renowned in story, and the noble Antioch, both submitted to you. Now, however, Scotland, which was your own rightly, has taken you at a disadvantage, her rashness more fitting a skirmish than a battle. Her people have neither military skill nor order in fighting, nor self-commaud, there is therefore no reason for fear, whatever there may be for indignation, at finding those whom we have hitherto sought and conquered in their own country, madly reversing the order, making an irruption into

*Vide Ord's Cleveland.

+ Vide Haile's Annals of Scotland, vol. 1, p. 90.

Some say Ranulph, bishop of Durham, but this is doubtful, for that prelate would most likely be in feague with David of Scotland.

A.D. 1138. ours. But that which I, a bishop, and by Divine permission, standing here as the representative of our archbishop, tell you, is this: that those who in this land have violated the temples of the Lord, polluted His altars, slain His priests, and spared neither children nor women with child, shall on this same soil receive condign punishment for their crime. This most just fulfilment of His will, God shall this day accomplish by your hands. Rouse yourselves then, gallant soldiers, and bear down on an accursed enemy, with the courage of your race, and in the presence of God. Let not their impetuosity shake you, since the many tokens of our valour do not deter them. They do not cover themselves with armour in war; you are in the constant practice of arms in the time of peace, that you may be at no loss in the chances of the day of battle. Your head is covered with the helmet, your breast with a coat of mail, your legs with greaves, and your whole body with the shield. Where can the enemy strike you when it finds you sheathed in steel? What have we to fear in attacking the naked bodies of men, who know not the use of armour? Is it their numbers? It is not so much the multitude of a host, as the valour of a few, that is decisive. Numbers without discipline are a hindrance to success in the attack, and to retreat in the defeat. Your ancestors were often victorious when they were but a few against many. What then does the renown of your fathers, your practice of arms, your military discipline avail, unless they make you, few though you are in numbers, invincible against the enemies' hosts? But I close my discourse, as I perceive them rushing on, and I am delighted to see that they are advancing in disorder.‡

Absolution

should fall in battle.

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Now, then, if any of you who this day are called to granted to all avenge the atrocities committed in the houses of God, against those who the priests of the Lord, and His little flock, should fall in the battle, I, in the name of your archbishop, absolve them from all spot of sin, in the name of the Father, whose creatures the foe hath foully and horribly slain, and of the Son, whose altars they have defiled, and of the Holy Ghost, from whose grace they have desperately fallen."

*The rank and file of the Scots used no defensive armour, and perhaps like their posterity, only wore the kilt.

+ The pauci contra multos principle is not always a safe one. The early Britons, although naked and savage, the Germans in the Franco-German war, and more recently the Zulus, often secured victory by their number against well-armed and disciplined troops.

The Scots, in their council of war, disagreed in their sentiments, about the manner of beginning the engagement. The Galloway men descended from the ancient Picts, claimed it as their right to be in the van, and make the first attack. Though David did not care to gratify them, yet to avoid the ill consequences of a quarrel, hastily gave orders for them to form the first battalion, and begin the battle.

Then all the English replied with a shout, and the mountains and hills re-echoed, “Amen! Amen!”

At the same moment the Scots raised their country's war-cry, "Albanigh! Albanigh!" till it reached the clouds.* These sounds were drowned amid the crash of arms.

A.D. 1138.

the attack.

The Galloway corps began the charge with such fury that The comthe English archers at first gave ground; but being sustained mencement of by the firmness of the rest of their body, and deriving great advantage from their armour in close engagement, they quickly rallied; whilst the ranks of the Galloway men, galled by the bowmen of Yorkshire and Lincolnshire, who poured in flights of arrows upon the enemy, and having lost their two leaders, were broken up, and the Scots fled in great confusion.

Prince Henry, forcing himself through the advancing English, passed beyond the Standard, fell upon a party of cavalry posted behind the main body, and drove them before him, followed by the rest of his forces. The English, terrified by the impetuosity of the attack, were on the point of quitting the field, when they were stopped by the stratagem of an An artful artful and experienced warrior; who, cutting off the head of stratagem. one who was slain, held it up on his lance, crying out, "this is the head of king David!" On hearing this the English renewed the battle with greater vigour than before. Scots, discouraged by the flight of the Galloway men, and the rumour of the death of their king, fled on all sides ;† leaving David, who had hitherto fought on foot, to retreat on Total defeat horseback, guarded by his knights. Those who fled, seeing of the Scots. the royal banner, on which a dragon was painted, waving in the air, concluded immediately that the king was not dead; and, rallying, joined his corps in such numbers, as to render it dangerous to the pursuers, Some of these latter were

The

taken prisoners, but the rest, with David, retired unmolested Escape of the to Carlisle, where the king remained for two days in great King. trouble about his son, of whom he could hear no tidings.

Prince Henry finding himself with a few followers in the midst of the English army, made them throw off their marks of distinction, and mixing with the enemy, found means at

last to get from them. After being severely wounded, and Prince Henry encountering many difficulties, the prince arrived at Carlisle wounded. three days after his father.

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*By this they meant to announce themselves as descended from the ancient inhabitants of Scotland, called of old Albyn and Albania. When they were repulsed, the English called in scorn Eyrych! Eyrych!" (Irish! Írish!) which was true of the wild Scots of Galloway, who are undoubtedly ScotchIrish.

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A.D. 1138. ours. But that which I, a bishop, and by Divine permission, standing here as the representative of our archbishop, tell you, is this: that those who in this land have violated the temples of the Lord, polluted His altars, slain His priests, and spared neither children nor women with child, shall on this same soil receive condign punishment for their crime. This most just fulfilment of His will, God shall this day accomplish by your hands. Rouse yourselves then, gallant soldiers, and bear down on an accursed enemy, with the courage of your race, and in the presence of God. Let not their impetuosity shake you, since the many tokens of our valour do not deter them. They do not cover themselves with armour* in war; you are in the constant practice of arms in the time of peace, that you may be at no loss in the chances of the day of battle. Your head is covered with the helmet, your breast with a coat of mail, your legs with greaves, and your whole body with the shield. Where can the enemy strike you when it finds you sheathed in steel? What have we to fear in attacking the naked bodies of men, who know not the use of armour? Is it their numbers? It is not so much the multitude of a host, as the valour of a few, that is decisive. Numbers without discipline are a hindrance to success in the attack, and to retreat in the defeat. Your ancestors were often victorious when they were but a few against many. What then does the renown of your fathers, your practice of arms, your military discipline avail, unless they make you, few though you are in numbers, invincible against the enemies' hosts? But I close my discourse, as I perceive them rushing on, and I am delighted to see that they are advancing in disorder.‡

Absolution

granted to all those who

should fall in battle.

"Now, then, if any of you who this day are called to avenge the atrocities committed in the houses of God, against the priests of the Lord, and His little flock, should fall in the battle, I, in the name of your archbishop, absolve them from all spot of sin, in the name of the Father, whose creatures the foe hath foully and horribly slain, and of the Son, whose altars they have defiled, and of the Holy Ghost, from whose grace they have desperately fallen.”

*The rank and file of the Scots used no defensive armour, and perhaps like their posterity, only wore the kilt.

+ The pauci contra multos principle is not always a safe one. The early Britons, although naked and savage, the Germans in the Franco-German war, and more recently the Zulus, often secured victory by their number against well-armed and disciplined troops.

The Scots, in their council of war, disagreed in their sentiments, about the manner of beginning the engagement. The Galloway men descended from the ancient Picts, claimed it as their right to be in the van, and make the first attack. Though David did not care to gratify them, yet to avoid the ill consequences of a quarrel, hastily gave orders for them to form the first battalion, and begin the battle.

Then all the English replied with a shout, and the moun- A.D. 1138. tains and hills re-echoed, “Amen! Amen!"

At the same moment the Scots raised their country's war-cry, "Albanigh! Albanigh!" till it reached the clouds.* These sounds were drowned amid the crash of arms.

the attack.

The Galloway corps began the charge with such fury that The comthe English archers at first gave ground; but being sustained mencement of by the firmness of the rest of their body, and deriving great advantage from their armour in close engagement, they quickly rallied; whilst the ranks of the Galloway men, galled by the bowmen of Yorkshire and Lincolnshire, who poured in flights of arrows upon the enemy, and having lost their two leaders, were broken up, and the Scots fled in great confusion.

Prince Henry, forcing himself through the advancing English, passed beyond the Standard, fell upon a party of cavalry posted behind the main body, and drove them before him, followed by the rest of his forces. The English, terrified by the impetuosity of the attack, were on the point of quitting the field, when they were stopped by the stratagem of an An artful artful and experienced warrior; who, cutting off the head of stratagem. one who was slain, held it up on his lance, crying out, "this is the head of king David!" On hearing this the English renewed the battle with greater vigour than before. The Scots, discouraged by the flight of the Galloway men, and the rumour of the death of their king, fled on all sides;† leaving David, who had hitherto fought on foot, to retreat on Total defeat horseback, guarded by his knights. Those who fled, seeing of the Scots. the royal banner, on which a dragon was painted, waving in the air, concluded immediately that the king was not dead; and, rallying, joined his corps in such numbers, as to render it dangerous to the pursuers, Some of these latter were

taken prisoners, but the rest, with David, retired unmolested Escape of the to Carlisle, where the king remained for two days in great King. trouble about his son, of whom he could hear no tidings.

Prince Henry finding himself with a few followers in the midst of the English army, made them throw off their marks of distinction, and mixing with the enemy, found means at

last to get from them. After being severely wounded, and Prince Henry encountering many difficulties, the prince arrived at Carlisle wounded. three days after his father.

* By this they meant to announce themselves as descended from the ancient inhabitants of Scotland, called of old Albyn and Albania. When they were repulsed, the English called in scorn "Eyrych! Eyrych!" (Irish! Írish!) which was true of the wild Scots of Galloway, who are undoubtedly ScotchIrish.

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