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A.D. 1175. de Mowbray who headed the insurgents was totally defeated by the royal troops, near Northallerton, on the 11th of March.

Northallerton

burnt by Wallace(?)

There is an apocryphal account that Wallace* the knight of Elrisle, fought a sanguinary battle on the outskirts of the town with "Shyr Rawff Rymut, captaine of Maltoun," and after lying some time in expectation of a visit from Edward I, burnt the town, but this account is considered by eminent antiquarians to be both unfounded and romantic.†

Defeat of
On the 13th of March Roger de Mowbray was again.
Roger de defeated by the troops of King Henry II. at Northallerton,
Mowbray at whilst hastening to relieve his nephew, John de Mowbray,
Northallerton, who was valiantly defending their ancestral castle at Thirsk.

1177. The Castle destroyed.

"Eodem anno Ds. rex fecit demoliri castellum & monia Leicestriæ, & castellum de Grosby, & castellum de Tresk, & castellum de Malseart, & castellum novum de Allerton, & castellum de Fremingham, & de Bungey, & fere omnia castella Angl. & Norman, quæ fuerint contra eum tempore guerræ."

Several historians say, that bishop Pudsey actually gave the king 1,000 marks, "pro amore suo habendo et ut castello sua starent."§ Lambarde says, that this bishop "among many things that he compassed at Richard I.'s hands, what tyme he made his expedition towards Jerusalem, obtained that this castle might stand, notwithstanding that, order was taken for the pullinge down of al other which had bene lately buylt in tyme of cyville warre." "But for al that," he adds, "the king caused it to be rased sone after." This, however, must

be a mistake, since Geoffrey de Collingham, an ancient
Durham historian, || speaking of the acts of Bishop Hugh,
in the time of Henry II., says, "that he fortified the town
(or castle) of Alverton, having obtained that when all other
castles were destroyed, this alone should remain entire. Yet
the king afterwards commanded it to be overthrown and laid
level with the ground." Hoveden says, "that this and other
castles were demolished by Henry in 1177, and calls it
castellum novum de Alverton."

* "Wallace tranountyt on the secund day,
Fra York thai passit rycht in gud aray;
North-west thai past in battaill buskyt boun,
Thar lugeyng tuk besyd Northallyrtoun."
"Then Wallace maid full mony byggyng hayt;

Thai rassyt fyr, brynt np Northallyrtoun,

Agayne throuch York-schyre bauldly maid thaim boun,

Destroyed the land, as fer as evir thai ryde,

Sewyn myle about thai brynt on athir syde."

Regist. Honor de Richmond, p. 156.

† Jefferson of Thirsk, a local historian, is the authority for the above

apocryphal account.

Lel. Col. I. 133.
Ang. Sac. I. 723.

§ Benedict. Abbas. Brompton, ap. x Script.

“The winding labyrinths, the hostile tower,
Where danger threaten'd, and tyrannic power,
The jealous draw-bridge, and the moat profound,
The lonely dungeon, in the cavern'd ground,
The sullen dome above those central caves,
Where liv'd one tyrant and a host of slaves!

The materials of the castle were undoubtedly used in erecting the Episcopal Palace or Manor house, which stood on the same site, about 200 yards west of the church. Leland says, "at the west side of Northalverton, a little from the chirch, is the bishop of Dyrham's palace, strong of building and well motid."* By whom built uncertain; it was for several generations the occasional residence of succeeding bishops of Durham, many important transactions occurring during their sojourn.

A.D. 1177

1180.

This gallant baron fought in the Battle of the Standard, and was advanced to the earldom of Yorkshire as a reward William de Gross. for his prowess. He was also distinguished for his liberality towards the religious orders. He founded the abbeys of Vandey, in Lincolnshire; Ment, in Yorkshire; and the ancient and stupendous castle, once the glory and still the ornament of Scarborough.t

King William (Rufus) II., out of gratitude for the friend1187. ship and fidelity which William, bishop of Durham, had Royal gift. shewn both to him and his father, gave to the said bishop and his successors, the town of Northallerton, with all its rights and appendages.‡

The following extracts from the Exchequer rolls serve to throw some little light on the history of the manor during the period corresponding with the dates:

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A.D. 1197. 8 Richard I. Roll 20. memb. 1. The account of Gilbert Fitz Reinfrid and Richard Briewerre, of the Bishopric of Durham, for three parts of a year, whilst it was in the hand of the king. Gilbert Fitz-Reinfrid and Richard Briewerre, Richard de Marisco and Master Anketil for them, render account of £100 54s. 41d. of stock of the same bishoprick sold. In the treasury, £80 104s. 8d. And to Stephen de Hendon 40s., which he had for service which he rendered to Hugh bishop of Durham for three parts of a year by the aforesaid writ. And they owe £15 9s. 8d., of which the town of Aluerton owes £8 11s. old. And Roger de Gloccr', 40s. 8d. Serlo, son of Walsi de Eborac, £4 8s. And Stephen de Hendon, Ios., as the aforesaid keepers say.

And

Of the debt which Hugh, bishop of Durham, owed the

king by the roll of the king.

*In the bishop's accounts in the auditor's office, at Durham, are several entries for the payment of keeping swans in this moat.

+ Roll of Battle Abbey.

‡ Simeon Dunelmensis, cap. 67.

1197. Extract from Exchequer rolls.

A.D. 1197.

1200.

Of those who rendered nothing of the aforesaid debt.

Roger, son of Jukel de Aluerton, owes 40s. for a certain house for the same. Nicholas, the parson of Leck, owes 2 marks of amercement for the same.

The tallage of the manors of the bishoprick by the aforesaid.

Of those who have rendered the whole.

The same render account of £200 55s. 10d. of the tallage of the manors of the bishoprick, the names of which, and the particulars of the debts, are noted down in the roll which the aforesaid have rendered in the treasury. They have paid in the treasury. And they are quit. The town of Alerton renders account of £30 for the same. In the treasury, £10 16s. 2d. And it owes £19 3s. 10d.

The scutage of the same bishoprick made by the same.
Of those who have rendered the whole.

John de Romundeb (Romanby) renders account of one marc for the same. In the treasury half a marc. And he

owes half a marc.

The Vicarage, which is in charge, was formerly approThe Vicarage priated to the prior and convent of Durham, and is still in the gift of the dean and chapter of that church. The present vicarage-house is of comparatively recent date, being built on the site of a much older edifice. The following inscription appears on a stone slab above the front door :

DOMUM HANC,

:

Vetustate collabentem instauratam

ampliatam commodiore loco positam,
sibi et successoribus suis Dei Opt
Max numine invocato dicat,
GEORGIUS TOWNSEND, A.M.,
Vicarius de Northallerton,

A.D. MDCCCXXVIII.

Pios tecta hæc tutentur
et Fideles.*

*Translation.-George Townsend, A.M., Vicar of Northallerton, devotes this house, decaying through old age, having been restored, enlarged, and placed in a more convenient situation, to himself and his successors, when he had invoked the blessing of the Greatest and Best GOD, A.D. 1828.

May these walls overshadow the pious and the faithful.

The proprietor of the rectorial tithes is Sir Henry A.D. 1200. Beresford Pierse, whose ancestor Henry Pierse, Esq., then M.P. for the Borough, purchased the rectory from Edmund Prissick, Esq., of Carlton, in Cleveland, to whom it had been sold by the Earl of Ailesbury, in whose family it had been long vested. A list of Vicars from a very remote period, and a further description of the Vicarage, will be found in the appendix.

Permission to hold fairs in Northallerton was granted by Fairs and king John in 1200; there were formerly only two during the Markets. year; at the present time there are four. (1) Candlemas Fair, for horses and cattle, held on the 14th February. (2) St. George's Fair, granted by Queen Mary, is held on the 5th and 6th of May, for horses, cattle, and sheep; it is also a fancy fair, and is a great resort of the fair sex. One of the halfyearly hirings takes place at this fair. (3) September Fair (S. Bartholomew), is held on the 5th of that month, but is not very well attended. (4) St. Matthew's Fair, granted by James I., is held on the 3rd of October, for cattle and sheep, and for the hiring of farm labourers. The Market is held on Wednesdays, and is supplied with various descriptions of produce. The Cheese Fair, formerly held on the second Wednesday in October, has been discontinued for many years. The following Latin stanzas (to which a translation is affixed) are extracted from Barnaby's Journal, (part iii).

Veni Alerton, ubi oves,
Tauri, vaccæ, vituli boves,
Aliaque campi pecora,
Oppidana erant decora:
Forum fuit jumentorum,
Mihi autem cella forum.
Veni Alerton, lætam, latam,
Mercatori perquam gratam,
In utiliorem actum,
Eligo locum pecori aptum.

(Translation.)

Thence to Alerton, rank'd in battle,
Sheep, kine, oxen, other cattle;

As I fortun'd to pass by there,
Were the town's best beautifier:

Fair for beasts at that time fell there,
But I made my fare the cellar.

Thence to Alerton, cheerful, fruitful,

To the seller very grateful;

There to choose a place, I'm chariest,
Where my beasts may shew the fairest.

The centre of activity at these fairs and markets was the cross which stood in the midst of the market-place, as a signal for upright intention and fair dealing, and designed as a check on a worldly spirit. On the north of the cross stood two double rows of shabby shambles, and on the south side

A.D. 1211. Extract from

Exchequer rolls.

1213.

an unsightly toll booth; both are now removed. The migratory habits of rats are well known, and it is said that large numbers have frequently been seen to proceed from the toll booth and shambles to drink at the Sun-beck when swollen. On the south side of the toll booth stood the stocks, "though lost to sight, to memory dear," and in which many ardent worshippers of Bacchus had time and opportunity given to them wherein to study the delightful science of astronomy.

13 John A.D. 1211. Roll 4. memb. 1.

The account of the bishopric of Durham from the feast of saint John the Baptist, in the tenth year, to the feast of saint Martin next following. And from thence for the three years next following.

Eimeric, archdeacon of Durham, and Philip de Ulecote render account of 198 12s. 8d. of the balance of the account of the bishopric of Durham, as it is contained in the roll of the eighth year of king Richard. And of 100s. of Reginald clerk of Aluerton for disseisin. And of 2 marcs of John de Rodmundbi. And of 30 marcs of the town of Aluerton. ́And of 2 marcs of Jukell de Smitheton. And of 20s. of Nicholas, the parson of Leke.

14 John, 1213. Roll. 5. memb. 2.

The account of the bishopric of Durham, by Eimeric, archdeacon of Durham, and Philip de Ulecote, from the feast of saint Martin, in the 13th year, to the feast of saint Martin the year of this roll.

The aforesaid Eimeric and Philip render account of £7 4s. 10d., in work done at the houses of Aluerton, by the same writ, and on sight of the aforesaid.

1218. This year Gualo, the pope's legate, summoned the clergy The Pope's of the neighbourhood to appear before him in Northallerton legate at Northallerton Church at Easter, where he gave absolution to some who satisfied his demands, obliged some to repair to the court at Rome, and passed on others sentences of suspension or deposition on the different degrees of obstinacy in the persons accused, as his own views of gain directed.*

1230.

A charter was granted by bishop Richard Poor, reciting divers liberties to the burgesses of Hartlepool. Given by the hand of Valens, at Alverton, 3 kal. Oct., in the third year of our episcopacy.‡

*Vide Ridpath's Border History.

+Translated from Salisbury, 22nd July, 1228. He made himself honorable by clearing his predecessor's (De Marisco) debts. He died 15th April, 1237, and was buried in the nunnery at Tarent, built by himself.

Sharpe's Hartlepool, 59.

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