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authority; which destruction subsequently took place, and the materials of the fabric were sold, as also the glebe land, with the site upon which the chapel stood.* Whether Wolsey or his royal master, the "Eighth Harry," pocketed the money, historians of that date do not mention. But Hodgson in his history of Allertonshire and Birdforth, says that "the king and the cardinal went snacks, and divided the money betwixt themselves, the cardinal having first deducted his expenses.t

A.D. 1523.

Although it is uncertain when the idea of dissolving the 1530. monasteries was first talked of, it is certain that the axe was Dissolution of first laid to the tree by Cardinal Wolsey, who obtained grants Carmelite for suppressing a number of the smaller monasteries in order Friary at Northallerton to found a college at Oxford (now Christ Church) and another at Ipswich. Wolsey himself (in his letter to the king, printed in Ellis, orig. lett. second series, ii. p. 18) calls them "certain exile and small monasteries, wherein neither God is served ne religion kept." The zealous catholics were alarmed by this measure, and justly regarded it as an example which would not fail to lead to a more general demolition of the religious houses. Some of the abbots attempted to avert the danger by offering sums of money for his scholastic foundation instead of the abbey lands, as in the case of Edmund Walley, abbot of St. Mary's, at York, who in a letter to the cardinal, says, "I am right interely contented, for your tenderinge of the premisses, to gyve unto your grace ccc. markes sterlinge, which shall be delivered unto your grace immediately.' There were even some tumultuous outbreaks of popular dissatisfaction. Grafton says,-" You have heard before how the cardinall suppressed many monasteries, of the which one was called Beggam, in Sussex, the which was verie commodious to the countrey: but so befell the cause, that a riotus company, disguised and unknown, with painted faces and visers, came to the same monasteries, and brought with them the chanons, and put them in their place againe, and promised them that whensoever they rang the bell, that they would come with a great power and defend them. Thys doyng came to the eare of the king's counsayle, which caused the chanons to be taken, and they confessed the capitaynes, which were

* Vide Rymer, Crossfield.

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† A portion of the glebe called the Hall Garth Fields, which was sold by Cardinal Wolsey after the destruction of the chapel, has been, by a lineal descendant of the purchaser, vested in trustees for the support of widows and deserving clergymen resident in Allertonshire and the North-Riding of Yorkshire.

Poor, lean, endowed with small revenues, Lat. exilis, (not alien priories.) It is a word of no uncommon occurrence in the writings of that age. § Chron. p. 382, new edition.

A.D. 1530. imprisoned and sore punished." When Wolsey was beginning to decline in the royal favour, the suppression of these religious houses was one of the first charges brought against him.

The question of breaking up the monasteries was formally proposed by secretary Cromwell in the year 1535. When the king consulted with his council on this subject, one was of opinion that "There is a due place left for monasteries; yet, when they grow up to that multitude, that either the just proportion they bear in a state is exceeded, or they become a receptacle only for lazy persons, it is fit to apply some convenient remedy, therefore be pleased, sir, not to think so much of their overthrow as their reformation." Another of the council remarked that, "The clergy had one-fourth part of all the revenues of the kingdom; that this was an undue proportion; and that two or three monasteries left in every shire would be sufficient."

After much consultation, a general visitation of the monasteries by commissioners was ordered, who carried on everywhere a rigorous inquiry with regard to the conduct and deportment of all the friars. Great irregularities were discovered to exist, especially in the lesser monasteries; the result was the passing of a bill, entitled "An Acte whereby Relygious Houses of Monkes, Chanons, and Nonnes, whiche may dyspend Manors, Landes, Tenementes, and Heredytaments, above the clere yerly value of ij.c.li. are given to the Kinges Highnes, his heires and successours, for ever." (27 Hen. VIII. c. 28.) By this act all the monasteries possessing revenues below two hundred pounds a year, to the number of three hundred and seventy-six, were suppressed, their revenues, amounting to thirty-two thousand pounds a year, were granted to the king; besides their goods, chattels and plate, computed at a hundred thousand pounds more. Hollingshed says, "Ten thousand monks were turned out on the dissolution of the lesser monasteries." In this category was the Carmelite friary of North Allerton, as appears from the original deed of surrender, deposited in the Augmentation office.

By the suppression of the monasteries, literature suffered an irremediable loss, by the neglect to provide a receptacle for the libraries. The monasteries at that time had a prodigious number of valuable manuscripts. Indeed, it was said, England contained more than any country of equal size in the world. Many an old MS. bible was cut to pieces, to cover pamphlets. The following is a complaint of Bale to Edward VI., A.D. 1549.

* Created baron Cromwell of Okeham, 9 July, 1536, and earl of Essex, 10 April, 1539, K.G. Attainted and beheaded, 1540, when his honors became forfeited.

I

"A number of those persons, who bought the monasteries, A.D. 1530. reserved of the library books thereof, some to serve their Wholesale vandalism. jakes; some to scour their candlesticks, and some to rub their boots; some they sold to the grocers and soap-sellers, and some they sent over-sea to the bookbinders, not in small numbers, but at times whole ships full. Even the universities of this realm were not all clear in this detestable fact. know a merchant-man that bought the contents of two noble libraries for forty shillings price! The stuff thereof he hath occupied, instead of grey paper, by the space of more than these ten years; and yet he hath store enough for as many years to come. Our posterity may well curse this wicked fall of our age, this unreasonable spoil of England's most noble antiquities."

"On the pretence," says Dodd, "of rooting out superstition, visitors were sent about. Upon this occasion was destroyed the famous Angervilian library, first composed by Angerville,* bishop of Durham. The two libraries of Cobham, bishop of Winchester, and duke Humphrey, of Gloucester, underwent the same fate."t

Innumerable works of art were destroyed, and magnificent specimens of architecture were defaced and left roofless. The friaries were adorned with curiously painted glass, and the names of the benefactors were recorded on the windows or walls of their cells, hence in "Pierce and Ploughman's Crede" a minor friar speaks thus to one who wanted to be taught his creed :

"We haven forsaken the world, and in wo libbeth,

In penaunce and pourerte, and prechethe the puple,

By ensample of oure lif, souls to helpen

And in pouerte preien, for al owr parteneres,
That gyueth us any good, God to honouren

Other bel other book, or bred to owr foode,

Other catel other cloth, to coueren with our bones.
Moneye, other moneye worth, here mede is in heuen,
For we buildeth a burwgh, a brod and a large,

A chirch and a chapitle, with chambers alofte.

With wide wyndowes yurought, and walles wel heyne
That mote ben portreid, and paint and pulched ful clene,
With gay glitering glas, glowyng as the sunne,

*Richard Angerville, alias De Bury, was tutor to prince Edward, afterwards Edw. III., at whose instance he was elected bishop of Durham, 7th Dec., 1333. He was much esteemed for his learning; and though his great knowledge in state affairs gained him frequent employment at court, and in embassies, he omitted no opportunity to apply to his studies. So violent was his love of books, that, as he says himself, it put him in a kind of rapture, and made him neglect all other business. He wrote several books; his principal work was "Philobiblos," a treatise for the management of his splendid library, which he founded for the students at Oxford. He held the several offices of lord privy seal, lord treasurer, and lord chancellor. He died 14 April, 1345, and was buried before Mary Magdalene's altar, in his cathedral.

† Vide Fuller's Church History.

A.D. 1530.

1533.

1534.

And mighteston amenden us with moneye of thyn owen,
Thou chouldest kneyl bifore Christ in compas of gold,
In the wyde window westward wel neigh in the myddel,
And Sainte Frauncis hym self, shal folden the in his cope,
And present the to the Trinite, and pray for thy synnes.
Thy name shall noblich ben wryten and wrought for the nones,
And in remembrance of the, yrad there for euere."

Alas! little did the writer of the above dream of the events which have produced such mighty changes. The names written and painted on the walls, to be "yrad there for euere," have long since perished and are forgotten, and their existence is among the things that are past.

Robert Askew, vicar of Northallerton in 1533, died in 1547.

The following account of the valuation of the bishopric of Northallerton Durham in 1534 is copied from an old book in the possession Bishopric of of a gentleman at Lintz Colliery :

and the

Durham.

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£ s. d. 863

486 6 212 15 I

351 400+O MOO34

..

Ditto in Stockton

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396 2 214 14 5

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Spirituals..

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290 12
630 0
87 13 4

241 II

18 O

46 2

284 10

1536.

The Pilgrimage of Grace.

In Norhamshire, the scite of the Castle, &c., of Norham.. 120 O
In Allerton and Allertonshire, the scite of the mansion..
Spirituals in Allerton and Allertonshire

In the liberty of Crayke the scite of the castle, &c.
In Hoveden and Hovedenshire

The Mansion of the Bishop of London

Deduct reprises

Clear value ..

18 I

3056 5 9 .. 307 8 3

£2748 19 6

The Bishop of Durham retained the privilege of coining money in his Mint from the year 1196, in the reign of Richard I., to the year 1540.

The suppression of the abbeys and monasteries caused such discontent, that a rebellion broke out in the northern counties under Robert Aske.

Forthe shall come a worme, an Aske with one eye,

He shall be the chiefe of the mainye;

He shall gather of chivalrie a fulle faire flocke

Half capon and half cocke,

The chicken shall the capon slay

And after thatte shall be no May.*

*These rhymes, alleged to be taken from the ancient prophecies of Merlin, it is said, were recited in the host as an ambiguous prediction of their expedition and its chief.

This rebellion, known by the name of the Pilgrimage of Grace, was joined by about 40,000 men. York, Hull, and Pontefract were soon captured by them, but listening to offers, they appointed deputies to treat with Henry; this ended in a general pardon, and a promise that their grievances should be discussed. But the king, neglecting to redeem his promise, the "pilgrims" were induced again to rise in arms in 1537, when they were speedily defeated by the duke of Norfolk, and their leader, with the abbots of Fountains, Jorevalle, and Rievaulx, the prior of Bridlington, and other chiefs, comprising some of the best blood in the north, were taken and executed. It is difficult to ascertain what part Northallerton took in the transaction, as a mystery hangs over the affair.* The more effectually to suppress this insurrection, Henry, in August re-appointed the famous council of the north, Cuthbert Tunstall, bishop of Durham, being its president. It continued to sit until the time of Charles I., having exercised a tyrannical and hateful jurisdiction for more than a century.

1536.

Antiquary.

About the year 1538, Leland, the famous antiquary began 1538. his peregrinations, under a commission from Henry VIII. Leland, the In his report the following account is given: "From Kirkeby His Report. Wisk to Northallerton a VI miles by pasture and corne ground. I markid by much of the way as I roode from Tollerton onto Wisk Bridge most communely caullid Smithon Bridge, that I passid yn a meately fertile valley bytwixt Blackemore Hills by east, and Richmontshire Hills by weste, a good distance being bytwixt them. There is very little wood in Northalvertonshire, and but one park at Hutton now without deere. There is good corne in Northalverton, yet a great peace of the grounde that I saw at hand bytwixt Northalverton and Smithon Bridge is low pasture and mores, whereof part beere sum fyrres. From Alverton to Smithon Bridge a VI miles wher Wisk renneth cumming a VI miles of by est from Smithon."

ment.

1541.

The endowment made by king Henry VIII. of the cathedral church of Durham, bears date the 16th May, 1541, Royal Endowwherein ecclesiastical jurisdiction in the manors of Northallerton, Howden, and Hemyngburg, are granted to the dean and chapter, in as full a form as they possessed the same before the dissolution. The statute of king Edward VI. reversed part of the grant, and the two collegiate churches were reduced.t

During the war with James V. king of Scotland which ended in the glorious victory of Solway, a long letter was

* Doubtless the names of many Northallerton men would appear upon the

roll of Pilgrims.

+ Hutchinson.

1542. Battle of Solway.

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