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Quarter Ses

1611. Held at RICHMOND, Oct. 8. James Kendroe and Will. Nelson sions Records. of Northallerton for using unlawfull games on the Sabaoth daie, viz. at Nyenholes, contrarie &c.

Ancient Jew

1612. Held at THIRSKE, April 21. Rich. Rymer Junr. and Tho. Walker of Allerton, for that they do not exercise shootinge on the long bowe &c.

1612. Held at NORTHALLERTON, July 10th. Rob. Hackforth of Dighton for playing at boules within the Churchyard &c. [Per Joh. Smyth, Ball. de Allertonshire.]

ANCIENT JEWISH DOCUMENTS RELATING
TO NORTHALLERTON.

In Part IX of the Journal of the Yorkshire Archæological ish Documents and Topographical Association, the Rev. J. T. Fowler, M.A., F.S.A., Hebrew Lecturer in the University of Durham, contributes an article entitled: "On certain 'Starrs' or Jewish Documents partly relating to Northallerton." From this paper the compiler of the "Annals of Northallerton" has made a few extracts which he thinks will be interesting to Northallerton readers:—

“These documents," says Mr. Fowler, "although not historically important, are curious and interesting relics of a remarkable race of men, the Jews in mediæval England." From translations of the original documents given by Mr. Fowler, it will be seen that York, like London, Lincoln, Norwich, and other ancient cities, was a resort of "that cruelly persecuted but much enduring community."‡

In 1286, the Jews of all the principal cities and towns were ordered by Edward I. to raise for him, among their own people, 20,000 marks (£13,333 6s. 8d.,) and the amount not being raised, they were treated with the utmost cruelty. All sorts of absurd accusations were brought against the Jews as pretexts for imprisoning them in order to obtain money for their release; and in transactions between Jew and Jew of that period, which for obvious reasons were recorded in Hebrew, we find together with the promise of payment, the ominous proviso, "unless I am cheated out of my property by any false accusation on the part of the king or the queen." "From Aaron of York§ alone, we learn from Matthew Paris, the king extorted what was equivalent to 32 ounces of gold, and £2,666 13s. 4d. in silver."

A dozen of these "Jewish Starrs" are preserved in the Tower of London, a dozen in the British Museum, and a large collection among the muniments of Westminster abbey. There are also a few in the possession of the Dean

*A game played with nine holes cut evenly in the turf, or hollowed out in the soil, in rows of three, so that the nine form a square. Each of the two players has three stones or other small objects of different colours, and he who can get three in a line first wins. The principal is precisely the same as in the game played by school-boys on their slates, and called "Tit-tat-too.'

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The word "Starr," is of Jewish origin (Lat. Starrum, Fr. Estar), and was imported into Rabbinical or medieval Hebrew from the Chaldee (sh'tar) which means a legal contract or obligatory writing. It occurs three times in the Chaldee Targum or paraphrase of Jer. xxxii, 10, 14. It was applied among the later Jews to any legal document whatever, and corresponded in signification to the Latin word "Scriptum," or the English "writing." Among the various explanations which have been given of the term "Star-chamber" (Camera Stellata) one is, that the apartment so called was formerly used for the conservation of these "Starrs" or Jewish documents, but this is mere conjecture. + Vide Ross's History of England, page 127.

Aaron of York was a man of considerable importance in the reign of Henry III. He is mentioned by Matthew Paris and later historians, and is believed to be the original Isaac of York in "Ivanhoe." He was the Rothschild of his date in point of wealth.

and Chapter of Durham, with the existence of which Mr. Fowler has made us Ancient Jewacquainted by the publication of his paper. The first which he quotes has no ish Documents reference to Northallerton. The next is a quit claim by which Aaron, the Jew of York, delivered to Hugh, Prior of Durham, certain lands at Northallerton, of which he had become possessed, through a transaction between himself and Thomas the Sergeant or Steward of the Prior and Convent at that place. The document is too lengthy for insertion here. No. III Starr is similar to No. II, but No. IV is short enough for insertion verbatim :--

"Know all men that I, Thomas, the Sergeant of Alverton, owe to Aaron, the Jew of York, six pounds sterling, to be re-paid at the feast of the Apostles Peter and Paul, in the year of grace one thousand two hundred and thirtyseven; and if I do not then re-pay it, I will give to him for every pound for each week twopence for interest, as long as by his favour I shall hold that debt; and therefore I have mortgaged to him all my lands, rents, and chattels until I discharge the said principal and interest, and this I have sworn and confirmed by my seal. Done at York xvii day of June, preceding."

Endorsed. Tomas le Sergunt, of Alverton, 17 June, 1237. (1.)

(L. S.)

The above document shews that Thomas, the Sergeant of Northallerton, had mortgaged lands, &c., to Aaron of York, for £6, and that he covenanted to pay the moderate interest of nearly 44 per cent. if he failed to re-pay the borrowed principal on the appointed day. Thomas failing in this, the land, &c., came into Aaron's possession, and it appears from Starrs 2 and 3, that the land was redeemed by the Prior and Convent of Durham, which accounts for their being found in the possession of the Dean and Chapter. When found they were tied together with a strip of parchment, and Thomas' seal, apparently representing an insect of some sort, but in a very crumbling condition, was attached to No. 4.

BATTLES AT NORTHALLERTON.

A.D. 865. Sharp conflict at Alvertoune between king Elfrid Battles at and five Danish kings. Not decided.

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Battle of Alvertoune. The Danes totally defeated. 1138. Battle of the Standard. Defeat of the Scots under David, by the English under Stephen.

1175.

1274.

Near Northallerton. Defeat of Prince Henry and
Sir Roger de Mowbray by Henry II.

Defeat of Sir Ralph Rymount, by Sir William
Wallace, knight, of Elrisle. Unfounded.

1644. Fatal skirmish at Northallerton, in which Lieut.-
col. Salvin was slain. This was soon followed
by the defeat of Charles I. by the Scots at
Marston Moor.

Northallerton

MEMBERS OF PARLIAMENT.

List of Members of Parliament returned by Northallerton from its enfranchisement to the passing of the Reform Bill.

1298 John le Clark*

Stephen Maunsell*

Privilege of political representation in abeyance.

1640 Thomas Heblewaite

Sir Henry Cholmley, knt.

1658 George Smithson

James Danby

1660 Sir F. Hollis, bart. George Marwood

1678 Sir Gilbert Gerrard, bart. Sir Henry Calverley, knt. 1681 Sir Gilbert Gerrard, bart. Sir Henry Calverley, knt. 1685 Sir David Foulis, bart.

Sir Henry Marwood, bart. 1688 William Robinson

Thomas Lascelles

1690 Sir Willam Robinson, knt. Thomas Lascelles 1695 Sir William Hustler, knt. Thomas Lascelles 1697 (vice Lascelles, dec.) 1698 Sir William Hustler, knt. Ralph Milbank

1700 Sir William Hustler, knt. Ralph Milbank

(vice Milbank, dec.)

1701 Sir William Hustler, knt.

Robert Dormer

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Mr. Dormer was subsequently 1780 Henry Peirse

returned to Parliament for the
county of Bucks, and in his stead
the borough elected

Roger Gale

From the Journal of the House of Commons it is ascertained that Thomas Harrison petitioned against the return of Mr. Gale, on the ground of bribery and other corrupt practices, but the petition was unsustained.

Edwin Lascelles (vice Daniel
Lascelles, resigned)

1784 Henry Peirse

Edwin Lascelles

1790 Henry Peirse

Edward Lascelles 1796 Henry Peirse

Edward Lascelles 1802 Henry Peirse

Edward Lascelles

* These gentlemen were paid by their constituents.

1806 Henry Peirse

Edward Lascelles

1807 Henry Peirse

Edward Lascelles

1812 Henry Peirse

Edward Visct. Lascelles

1814 J. B. S. Morritt (vice Lascelles,

Henry Visct. Lascelles

deceased)

Henry Peirse

1818 Henry Peirse

1820 Henry Peirse

Hon. W. S. S. Lascelles

1824 Lieut. Marcus Beresford (vice Peirse, deceased)

Hon. W. S. S. Lascelles

1826 Hon. Henry Lascelles

Sir John P. Beresford, bart.

1830 Hon. Henry Lascelles

Sir J. P. Beresford, bart.

1831 Sir J. P. Beresford, bart.
Hon. W. S. S. Lascelles

List of Parliamentary Elections in Northallerton since the passing of the Reform Bill.

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* Unseated on Petition.

These figures do not include the hamlets of Romanby, Lazenby, and Deighton.

+Bye Election.

VICARS AND CURATES OF NORTHALLERTON from the most remote period to which they can be traced.

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*Rector of Kirby Sigston, 1332.

John Robinson
Christopher Place
George Goundril
William Peacock

Afterwards Bishop of Rochester, beheaded on Tower Hill, 1535, vide page 40.

Died by poison in 1627, vide page 80.

Vide page 83.

? Ejected by Mr. Mann, vide page 80.

Mr. Robson affixed his signature as a witness to the signing of Rev. Francis Kaye's will ** Died at Northallerton, 5th Feb., 1708, and buried there.

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