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The Jesuits.

IT has already been said, that Paris was the cradle of the Society, because Ignatius chose his first companions in that city, where they all made their vows and took those oaths which they have so often since repeated.

They were so ambitious to be incorporated with the University of Paris, that in their petitions to Paul III. in 1540, and to Julius III. in 1550, to give themselves an air of some importance, they asserted they were all graduated in that university. This, though no more than a sample of their uniform conduct afterwards, was a bad beginning, for upon a search of the registers it was found that three of the ten had never taken any degree. This disgrace, however, could not fall upon Francis Xavier, who was absent on the course of his missions, when these petitions were presented.

From 1540, immediately after the approbation of the society by Paul III. Ignatius having distributed his companions into the different parts of the world, sent a number of scholars to Paris under the conduct of Equia, and afterwards under that of Dominicus. But the king having ordered all the subjects of Charles V. to depart from the kingdom, the greatest part of this little society, which was composed of subjects of the emperour, retired to Louvain.

Nevertheless, in 1545, there were thirteen of them in the college of the Lombards as beneficiaries or scholars, and under the conduct of Viole, but without being known. They found a powerful protector in the person of William Du Pratt, bishop of Clermont, natural son of the famous Du Pratt, chancellor, cardinal and legate, who offered to purchase the papacy with a hundred and twenty thousand livres, and who had left great riches to his son. This prelate first established the Jesuits in his city of Billon; he then lodged those who were at Paris in his house, the Hotel de Clermont, and finally left them a considerable legacy, of which we shall have occasion to speak again. Viole received orders from the general to make profession, between the hands of the bishop of Clermont, who delegated the Abbey de Sainte Genevieve to receive it.

All these things were still but experiments, of which Ignatius calculated to make a good use in future. He had bis enterprize too near his heart to neglect any thing that might extend it. He had insinuated himself at Rome into the good Vol. VI. No. 3.



The Jesuits.

[March, graces of the cardinal de Lorraine, who had promised him to protect his institution at the court of France, when he should return there. In fact, upon the instances of that cardinal, the king, Henry II. issued, in January 1550, letters patent, by which he agreed and approved the Bulls of the Pope, which the Jesuits had obtained. And permitted the said brothers to construct, edify, and cause to be built from such means as might be given them in charity, a house and college, in the city of Paris only, and not in other cities, there to live according to their regulations and statutes; and commanded his courts of parliament, not only to suffer but to cause the said brothers to enjoy the said privileges.'

The Jesuits presented their letters patent to parliamentparliament passed an arrest which ordained that the papers should be referred to the king's counsellors at law to give their opinions or conclusions. M. Brussart, attorney general, of whom Pasquier and du Boulay have said that he was the Cato of his age, consulted with his colleagues, M. de Marillac and Seguier, and they gave their conclusions in writing with their reasons in detail, against any juridical approbation or verification; at least, in all events, to present remonstrances to the king, that the authorization of those letters patent should not pass.

The parliament did not proceed to any decree upon these conclusions; but they were communicated, under hand, to the Jesuits themselves. These fathers, immediately threw the court into an agitation, (and what a court was that !) and obtained letters of jussion, i. e. letters of positive command to the parliament, to enregister these letters patent. These facts are stated in the discourse which M. Seguier delivered in parliament, on the 26th of January, 1552. This discourse is too important to be neglected in any thing it contains. Here it is entire.

Extract from the registers of parliament. On this day the gentlemen of the king's law counsel by the organ of M. Peter Seguier, advocate of the said king, have remonstrated to the said court of parliament, that heretofore there were letters patent of the king presented to the court, that it might authorize a congregation, which they call the congregation of Jesuits. And after the presentation of the said letters patent, the court ordered that they should be communicated to the attorney general of the king, in the customary manner. The attorney general of the king, having examined the said

letters patent with the late M. Gabriel Marillac, then advocate general of the king, they delivered their conclusions, or report in writing with their reasons, to prevent the juridical approbation and verification of them. At least, in all events to make remonstrances against the authorization of the said letters patent. These conclusions, or in other words, this report contained three or four points.

1. They found the erection of this congregation of Jesuits not only unnecessary, but superfluous; for the canonical constitutions, which had been made four or five hundred years before, had determined that there were then enough of religious orders, and reprobated those which had been then recently introduced, and those others which were then projected and desired to be introduced; and it then seemed sufficient to support those which had been anciently approved and received. Hence it appeared to them, that this congregation of the Jesuits was (Nimia) too much. Moreover these Jesuits take such sagacious precautions, that if any transgression of their regulations is committed, recourse must be had to Rome for a decision.

2. By these letters, they are permitted to hold all their possessions, without any obligation to pay tythes; so that the curates, and those to whom the tythes belong, can pretend to none. This appears an innovation.

They say by these letters, that they will go and preach the Faith of Jesus Christ in the Morea, that is, in the ancient Peloponnesus. This would be very well; but if they had devotion enough to undertake this for the honour of God and the propagation of our faith, they need not demand such privileges as they do.

For these reasons, the king's counsellors at law have been of opinon that they ought to oppose the authorization of the said letters patent, or at least to supplicate parliament to make remonstrances to the king against such authorization.

And although their conclusions were in writing, nevertheless the court of parliament would not have given the Jesuits any right to them or power over them by which they might come to their knowledge; much less would have delivered those letters patent and the conclusions upon them altogether to those who pursued the authorization of them, so that they might be laid before the king and procure letters in form of iteration, rejecting the said attorney general and his conclusions implying, that the king had understood the re


The Jesuits.

[March, monstrances, which were intended to be made to him, but notwithstanding those intended remonstrances, he willed and intended that his first letters patent should be juridically approved, and commanded the said attorney general that he should not only consent to the verification of the said letters, but that he should require it.

For these reasons they besaught the parliament, first, that the conclusions which they might in future present in writing or by words pronounced in person, should be held secret in such a manner that they may not come to the knowledge of those, who pursue the verification of any letters patent. As to themselves, if they have reported conclusions which the court have thought not good and see fit to reject, they will receive that as patiently as if the court had judicially approved them. But it appeared strange to them, that their conclusions should be carried to the king in his council, and that fresh letters should be despatched, that notwithstanding those conclusions, parliament should proceed to ratify the first letters.

But finally they persist according to their said conclusions in their request, that remonstrances may be made to the king. Done in parliament the 26th of January, 1552.

If any reader's curiosity should incline him to amuse bimself with this society, he may find a summary of its history and character, not less candid than elegant, in Dr. Robertson's classical history of Charles V. vol. ii. p. 192. vol. iii. pp. 204— 235; and in Pascal's Provincial Letters ; in the French Encyclopedia, article Jesuit; in the American Encyclopedia, article Jesuit; in the notes and dissertations of the Marquis D'Argens in his Translations of Ocellus, Lucanus and Timeus of Locris; and above all, in the Histoire Generale de la naissance et des progres de la Compagnie de Jesus, printed in Amsterdam in 1761, in four volumes 12mo, of three or four hundred pages each.

In the mean time, I may pursue my inquisitions, at my leisure, in my own time, and in my own way. INQUISITOR.


Development of the Herculaneum Rolls.-THE following account, from a foreign journal, contains some interesting information on this curious and important subject.

‹ The lovers of literature are, it appears, in a fair way of realising the long hidden contents of those precious relicks of antiquity, the Six Papiri, given by his Majesty the king of Naples to Buonaparte, but now in the possession of the French Academy; and likewise those Herculaneum Rolls in England, under the especial care of his Royal Highness the Prince Regent. From the letter of Dr. Sickler, at Hildburghausen, Jan. 3, 1817, he seems to express considerable gratification in being thought capable of undertaking and executing a work, which, up to the present moment, has almost uselessly occupied so many of our most enlightened scholars and experienced artists; and which has involved them in various perplexities, without any beneficial result. The doctor observes, that if the Rolls at Paris and in London have writing only on one side, as they are commonly found-if they are not lacerated, or torn in pieces by any mechanical violenceif they have not been injured by the application of drugs or chymical matter-if their writing has not been destroyed either by the action of fire, or by the effect of damp-finally, if the obstacles which have hitherto presented themselves to their complete development are only those which have occurred at Naples up to this time, he will undertake to guarantee the success of his method. He engages, that in unrolling the the Herculaneum manuscripts, they shall scarcely lose a particle of their fragile composition-that the pages adhering to each other shall be separated without suffering the smallest damage-that the writing, which has not been effaced by the action of fire, shall be produced perfectly legible; and that the expedition and rapidity with which the development shall take place, shall astonish those who are acquainted with the method hitherto practised at Naples, and who are able to appreciate the difficulties and the merit of the operation. The doctor thinks it perfectly practical that a roll of 80 or 100 columns, each column containing 24 or 30 lines, and each line 10 or 12 words, may be unrolled in the space of five or six weeks. As far as regards the material obstacles that have occurred up to the present moment, from observations made at Naples, and upon

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