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the richer part, a larger sum. Besides the right of Blaxton, the inhabitants of the town purchased the land of Chicatabut, the reigning sachem, for a valuable consideration; and fifty five years afterwards, they purchased of Josias Wampatuck, the grandson of Chicatabut, his quitclaim of the same territory.
The first meetings of the General Court, after the arrival of the governour, deputy governour, and assistants from England, were held at Charlestown. But October 19, 1650, the first General Court of the colony was held at Boston.
The peninsula was called by the Indians Shaumut; but by the first settlers at Charlestown, it was called Tremount, from the three peaks of Beacon Hill, visible from that town. It received its present name from the affection of some of the first planters for their native place, Boston in England, and this name was confirmed by the General Court, in the first year of its settlement.
In this work will be found, extracted from the historians of the day, some description of the town, and of the native inhabitants. The most important incidents in the history of the town are aslo related, as they are found recorded in a great variety of our early authors, and in the town records. From this last source, the author has obtained many important facts, and a variety of amusing details, relating to our municipal history.
The part of the town first settled was the borders of the cove, called the Town Dock, which extended through the spot where the market now stands. The settlements afterwards extended to the north end, which was for many years much the most populous and elegant quarter of the town. That part of the town lies nearest to the ship channel, and is on that account the most convenient for business. Its decline is probably owing to its being crowded with buildings, and those not suited to the increasing wealth, and improving taste of the inhabitants.
The first houses were meanly built, with thatched roofs, and chimnies constructed of wood covered with clay and mortar; but in the course of a few years, the style of building seems to have greatly improved. John Josselyn, who visited Boston in 1668, says the buildings were handsome, 'joining one to another as in London, with many large streets, most of them paved with pebble.' He says there were some buildings of stone that there was one stately edifice that cost nearly 3000 pounds, and that there were three fair meeting houses.
Moll, the celebrated geographer, in 1717, says there were abundance of fine buildings, both publick and private, that it was a very flourishing city, and for the beauty of its structure and its great trade, it gave place to few in England. The population of the town was then estimated at 12,000.
Boston was soon found to be advantageously situated for trade,
and it consequently increased more rapidly than any of the neighbouring places in population and wealth. In October 1632, about two years after the first settlement of the town, the number of church members was a hundred and fifty two. In 1673, the number of families was estimated at fifteen hundred Computing from the average number of deaths about the year 1700, it is probable that the number of inhabitants was then about nine thousand. Computing from the same data, there seems to have been a regular increase until 1742, when we find the number stated at eighteen thousand. From that period to the year 1791, there appears to have been no increase of population. During a part of the intermediate time, it did not exceed fifteen thousand. By the census of 1800 it was found to be twenty four thousand nine hundred and thirty seven; and in 1810, thirty three thousand two hundred and fifty. In 1818, it undoubtedly exceeds forty thousand.
This work gives a full description and history of all the publick buildings in Boston, as well as of its literary, benevolent, and other institutions. It contains also a good many anecdotes and amusing extracts from ancient authors. It is not so full in some parts as could have been wished, or as it might easily have been made by the author. It is also deficient in method and arrangement, and contains some trifling descriptions which might, without injury, have been omitted. Still it contains a fund of entertainment, and useful information, and is on the whole much better executed, than any work of the kind that we have ever met with.
Geology of the Northern States.-A treatise has lately been published, entitled, An Index to the Geology of the Northern States, with a transverse section from Catskill mountain to the Atlantick, by Amos Eaton, A. M. Lecturer on Natural History and Chemistry, member of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York. This is a pamphlet of fifty or sixty pages, and contains the results of a series of practical and laborious researches of the author. He tells us, that he had travelled more than a thousand miles on foot in collecting the facts, which he records. These facts are illustrative of the geological structure of the country between the Catskill mountain and Boston; especially of the Western counties of Massachusetts. We are disposed to appreciate the more highly labours like these, because they are rare, and because they afford the only means of coming at accurate geological results. We have had speculative geologists enough. It is time to reason from facts-to build systems on foundations, which are not entirely of sand, or else build none at all. The speculations at the close of this pamphlet, respecting the original formation of the earth, we do not think its wisest or most valuable part.
Botanick Garden in Cambridge.-Professor PECK has lately published a Catalogue of American and foreign Plants, cultivated in the Botanick Garden, Cambridge, Massachusetts. This catalogue is arranged with scientifick accuracy, and apparently with great care and skill. Any one can ascertain at a single glance the number, which each plant bears in the garden, its Latin name, its English name, its native place of growth, its time of flowering, and its duration. The friends of the establishment must be gratified with the evidence, which this book affords, of the prosperous condition of the garden, and the usefulness it promises. The Botanick Garden at Cambridge,' says Professor Peck, was intended for the cultivation of plants from various parts of the world, to facilitate the acquisition of botanical knowledge. It was also intended to receive all such indigenous trees, shrubs and herbaceous plants, as are worthy of attention, as being useful in domestick economy, in the arts, or in medicine. The present collection began with exotick plants, contributed by friends of the institution, who possessed green houses in the vicinity, who, as they have acquired new plants, have generously continued to impart them. Gentlemen who have visited tropical regions in the East and West Indies, and in Africa, have also presented plants and seeds; and seeds have been received from some of the Botanick Gardens in Europe. From all these sources, the collection is enriched with many very curious plants, which would be much valued any where. In all establishments of this kind, it is usual to employ some person solely in collecting plants; but the funds of this institution have not been sufficient to meet such an expense, and no person has been engaged in this necessary employment, till the last summer, when a gentleman, skilled in plants, was partially occupied in introducing the indigenous productions. Hence the number of native plants is comparatively small; as their number increases, proper and acceptable returns will be made to foreign friends.'
Massachusetts Historical Society.-The Massachusetts Historical Society have in the press the seventeenth volume of their colcollections. It will contain the Continuation of Johnson's Wonder-working Providence ; notice of the early settlements in Tennessee; statistical account of the county of Hillsborough, New Hampshire; Franklin's letter to Dr. Heberden, 1759, on inoculation for the Small Pox in Boston; a series of early State Papers of Rhode Island Colony; Historical descriptions of Walpole, New Hampshire, and Bridgewater and Abington, in Mass. The article on Bridgewater gives a very particular and satisfactory account of its early history. The deed by which the famous Sachem Massasoit granted the town to its first European proprietors, is inserted.
The original deed, in the hand writing of Miles Standish, is in the possession of the writer of this article. A tract of land fourteen miles square was sold for seven coats, nine hatchets, eight hoes, twenty knives, four moose skins, and ten and a half yards of cotton. A biographical account of Ezekiel Chever, the celebrated schoolmaster; and several other tracts of general importance are also comprised in this volume. The republication of the three pamphlet numbers of Prince's Annals is a very valuable part of it. These tracts have become very scarce, especially the last of them, of which only two or three copies are known to be in this country. A few copies of Prince's Continuation have been separately printed, that those persons who own the first part may be supplied with the remainder.
College of the Natives in Calcutta.-A college has been instituted in Calcutta by the natives. It was projected by them, and is entirely under their superintendence and support. These exertions argue favourably of the progress of improvement in the East. The following selection from the rules approved by the subscribers, at a meeting held August 27, 1816, give a general outline of the plan proposed.
The primary object of this institution is the tuition of the sons of respectable Hindoos in the English and Indian languages, and in the literature and science of Europe and Asia. The college shall include a school, and an academy. The former to be established immediately the latter as soon as may be practicable. In the school shall be taught English and Bengalee reading, writing, grammar, and arithmetick by the improved method of instruction. The Persian language may also be taught in the school, until the academy be established, as far as shall be found convenient. In the academy, besides the study of such languages as cannot be so conveniently taught in the school, instruction shall be given in history, geography, chronology, astronomy, mathematicks, and other sciences. Publick examinations shall be held at stated times, to be fixed by the managers; and students, who particularly distinguish themselves, shall receive honourary rewards. Boys, who are distinguished in the school for good conduct and proficiency, shall, at the discretion of the masters, receive further instruction in the academy, free of charge.
On the 20th of January, 1817, the school above mentioned was commenced. The number of scholars on the first day was twenty. It appears from the Calcutta Gazette, that the opening of the school was attended with a good deal of ceremony. All the managers of the college were present, comprising a large number of the most distinguished natives in Calcutta ; and also, many European gen
tlemen residing there. The Pundits testified great satisfaction on this interesting occasion; and said, that to day they witnessed the beginning of what they hoped would issue in a great diffusion of knowledge. A learned native expressed his hopes, that the Hindoo college would resemble the bur, the largest of trees, which yet is at first but a small seedling. At a meeting of the managers on February the 8th, it was ordered, that seventeen free scholars should forthwith be admitted under the patronage of the committee into the school of the institution.
Journal of the British Bible Society.-A new monthly publication is projected in England by some friends of the British and Foreign Bible Society, which is to be devoted exclusively to the concerns of that institution, to be called the Biblical Register. It was to commence on the first of January last. The proposed plan is to contain an historical account of the society-essays on any principle or practice of the society-review of works relating to the society-memoirs, or biography of persons particularly connected with the society-home intelligence-foreign intelligencemiscellaneous matter. It is also proposed to furnish portraits of persons particularly connected with the society.
Encyclopædia Metropolitana.-A new Encyclopædia was to be commenced in London on the first of January, entitled Encyclopædia Metropolitana, or Universal Dictionary of knowledge, on an original plan, comprising the twofold advantage of a philosophical and an alphabetical arrangement-with appropriate and entirely new engravings. Authentick portraits are to accompany the biographical part. It is to be comprised in twenty five volumes quarto. The writers of the prospectus complain in strong terms of the inconveniences and defects of the common plan on which works of this kind have been formed-the illjudged manner in which they have been conducted, and the total disproportion, which has always existed, between the lengths of different articles, and the importance of the subjects on which they treat. They think it also a serious objection against these works, that they are so full of speculations and conjecture. An Encyclopædia,' say they, is a history of knowledge, in which speculations, which can be at best but truths in the future tense, have no rightful or beseeming place. This indeed we hold to be a principle of such paramount importance, that we take the earliest opportunity of avowing our determination of a strict and systematick adherence to it ;-and we have given our publick pledge, that the Encyclopædia Metropolitana shall be so far historical in all respects, that only what has been established,