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very blunt one; you have not besides sent him some CLXXXIX. TO THE EARL OF BUCKINGHAM.* advice of your own, his Majesty having only intrusted you to speak with Sir Lionel Cranfield about his estate.

Your lordship's faithful friend and servant,
Newmarket, 19 Nov. 1617.


THE liking which his Majesty hath of our proceeding concerning his household, telleth me that his Majesty cannot but dislike the declining and tergiversation of the inferior officers; which by this time he understandeth.


There be but four kinds of retrenchments. The union of tables. 2. The putting down of tables. 3. The abatement of dishes to tables. 4. The cutting off new diets and allowance lately raised; and yet perhaps such as are more necessary than some of the old.


In my opinion, the first is the best and most feasible. The lord chamberlain's table is the principal table of state. The lord steward's table, I think, is much frequented by Scottish gentlemen. Your lordship's table hath a great attendance; and the groom of the stole's table is much resorted to by the bedchamber. These would not be touched. But for the rest, his Majesty's case considered, I think they may well be united into one.

These things are out of my element, but my care runneth where the king's state most laboureth. Sir Lionel Cranfield † is yet sick, for which I am very sorry; for methinks his Majesty, upon these tossings over his business from one to others, hath an apt occasion to go on with sub-committees. God ever preserve and prosper you.

Your lordship's true friend and devoted servant,

York-house, Nov. 19, 1617.



His Majesty commandeth me to write to your lordship, that he wonders your hand being at that letter of the lords of the council, which he saith is a

Stephens's First Collection, p. 219.

+ Sir Lionel Cranfield was a man of so much note in these times, and so often named in these papers, that I cannot omit taking some notice of his good and bad fortunes. He was bred a merchant, yet by his great abilities in, and application to business, and the relation he had to my lord of Buckingham by marriage, he was raised to be master of the court of requests, then of the wardrobe, and after of the court of wards, created Lord Cranfield, and earl of Middlesex; missing the lord keeper's place, he was constituted lord high treasurer, which being an office he understood as well as any, we may conclude his integrity fell short of his ability, from the severe judgment given against him by the house of lords in 1624. Stephens. Stephens's Second Collection, p. 64. Ibid. p. 65.

One of these letters of K. James, as it contains a specimen of the frugality and good economy of his court, and relates to the subject we are upon, I have borrowed from the Cabala, p. 258, in terms following.

A letter read to the council-board 21 Nov. 1617, touching
the abatement of his Majesty's household charge.

No worldly thing is so precious as time: ye know what task gave you to work upon, during my absence; and what time was limited unto you, for the performance thereof. This same chancellor of Scotland was wont to tell me twenty-four years



YESTERDAY at afternoon were read at the table his Majesty's two letters, || written with his own hand, the matter worthy the hand. For they were written " ex arte imperandi," if I can judge; and I hope they and the like will disenchant us of the opinion, which yet sticks with us, that to-day will be as yesterday, and to-morrow as to-day; so as there will be, as he saith, "Acribus initiis, fine incurioso."

I hold my opinion given in my former letter, that the uniting of some tables is the most passable way. But that is not all; for when that is done, the king may save greatly in that which remaineth. For if it be set down, what tables shall be fixed, and what diet allowed to them, my steward, as ill a mesnager as I am, or my lord mayor's steward, can go near to tell, what charge will go near to maintain the proportion. Then add to that some large allowance for waste, because the king shall not lose his prerogative to be deceived more than other men, and yet, no question, there will be a great retrenchment. But against this last abatement will be fronted the payment of arrears. But I confess I would be glad that I might see, or rather that a parliament may see, and chiefly that the king, for his own quiet, may see, that upon such a sum paid, such an annual retrenchment will follow for things will never be done in act, except they be first done in conceit.


I know these things do not pertain to me for my part is to acquit the king's office towards God by administration of justice, and to oblige the hearts

ago, that my house could not be kept upon epigrams: long
discourses and fair tales will never repair my estate.
nis virtus in actione constitit." Remember, that I told you,
the shoe must be made for the foot, and let that be the square
of all your proceeding in this business. Abate superfluities
of all things; and multitudes of unnecessary officers, where-
ever they be placed. But for the household, wardrobe,
and pensions, cut and carve as many as may agree with the
possibility of my means. Exceed not your own rule of 50,0007.
for the household. If you can make it less I will account it
for good service. And that you may see I will not spare mine
own person, I have sent, with this bearer, a note of the super-
fluous charges concerning my mouth, having had the happy
opportunities of this messenger, in an errand so nearly con-
cerning his place. In this I expect no answer in word or
writing, but only the real performance, for a beginning to
relieve me out of my miseries. For now the ball is at your
feet, and the world shall bear me witness, that I have put you
fairly to it; and so praving God to bless your labours, I bid
you heartily farewell Your own,

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of his people to him by the same, and to maintain | king's business. God ever preserve and prosper


his prerogative. But yet because it is in hoc that the king's case laboureth, I cannot but yield my care, and my strength too, in council, such as it is; which cannot be so much, as it was between our Lady-day and Michaelmas last. But whatsoever it is, it is wholly his Majesty's without any deflexion.

As soon as I find any possibility of health in Sir Lionel Cranfield, to execute a sub-commission, I will by conference with him frame a draught of a letter from his Majesty, for which there is the fairest occasion in the world. And the king hath prepared it as well as possible. God ever preserve and prosper you.


Your lordship's true friend and devoted servant,

York-house, Nov. 22, 1617.


How well I wish to Sir Gilbert Haughton, himself I dare say doth not doubt, partly out of mine own affection, and chiefly for your lordship's affection towards him, which is to me more than mine own. That the king should make bargains of hope, when his treasure sufficeth not for his own charge, I may not advise for my dearest friends; for I am nailed to the king's estate. But two things I shall assent unto; the one, that if the king can redeem his works without charge of officers, I shall be glad of it, both for the gentleman's sake, and because I perceive the uniting of the allum-works in the king's hand is best; the other, that if his Majesty be pleased to signify his pleasure to my lord treasurer and me, that there be no forfeiture taken by Banister till the king shall advise of this bargain, we will hold him to it. God preserve and prosper your lordship. Your lordship, I think, perceiveth both by scribbling and cursory inditing, that I write in straits of business.

Your lordship's true friend and devoted servant,
York-house, this 24th of Nov. 1617.

Your lordship's true friend and devoted servant,
York-house, Nov. 27, 1617.
Sir Lionel Cranfield is now reasonably well re-



I SEND your lordship a draught of a letter touching the sub-commission, written in wide lines, because it may be the better amended by his Majesty. I think it is so penned as none can except to it, no nor imagine any thing of it. For the household business there was given a fortnight's day; for the pensions, the course which I first propounded, of abating a third throughout, and some wholly, seemeth well entered into. These be no ill beginnings. But this course of the sub-commission threads all the Stephens's Second Collection, p. 67.


CXCII. TO THE EARL OF BUCKINGHAM.* propound the retrenchments, will out of interest or


fearfulness make dainty to do service; and that
which is done with an ill-will will never be well
done. Again, to make it the act of the whole table,
for the particular propositions and reckonings, will
be too tedious for you, and will draw the business
itself into length; and to make any particular com-
mittees of yourselves, were to impose that upon a
few, which requireth to be carried indifferently as
the act of you all. For since the great officers
themselves think it too heavy for them, as our state
now is, to deal in it, without bringing it to the table;
with much more reason may any particular persons
of you be loth to meddle in it, but at the board.
all which respects we have thought fit, neither do
we see any other way, that you send unto us the
names of the officers of our exchequer, and our cus-
tom-house, and auditors, out of which we will make
choice of some few, best qualified to be sub-com-
mittees, for the better case, and the speeding of the
business by their continual travels and meetings;
whose part and employment we incline to be to at-
tend the principal officers in their several charges,
and join themselves to some of the inferior officers,
and so take upon them the mechanic and laborious
part of every business, thereby to facilitate and pre-
pare it for your consultations, according to the direc-
tions and instructions they shall receive from you
from time to time.


In this first and greatest branch of our charge concerning our house, we do find what difficulties are made, and what time is lost, in disputing of and devising upon the manner of doing it: whereof the matter must be, and is so fully resolved. Neither can we but see in this, as in a glass, the like event to follow in the rest upon like reason. For the inferior officers in every kind, who are best able for skill to



BEING yesterday assembled in council to proceed in the course we had begun for retrenchment of your Majesty's expenses; we received your princely letters, whereby we are directed to send to your Majesty the names of the officers of the exchequer, custom-house, and auditors, out of which you purpose to make choice of some to be sub-committed to handle the mechanic and laborious part of that which your Majesty had appointed to our care; we + Ibid. Ibid. p. 69.

have, according to our duty, sent unto your Majesty the names of the several officers of your Majesty in those places, to be ordered as your wisdom shall think best to direct. But withal, we thought it appertenant to our duties to inform your Majesty how far we have proceeded in the several heads of retrenchments by your Majesty at your departure committed unto us, that when you know in what estate our labours are, your judgment may the better direct any farther course as shall be meet.

The matter of the household was by us, some days since, committed peremptorily to the officers of the house, as matter of commandment from your Majesty, and of duty in them, to reduce the expense of your house to a limited charge of fifty thousand pounds by the year, besides the benefit of the compositions; and they have ever since painfully, as we are informed, travailed in it, and will be ready on Sunday next, which was the day given them, to present some models of retrenchments of divers kinds, all aiming at your Majesty's service.

In the point of pensions we have made a beginning, by suspending some wholly for a time, and of others of a third part; in which course we are still going on, until we make it fit to be presented to your Majesty; in like manner the lord chamberlain and the lord Hay did yesterday report unto us, what their travail had ordered in the wardrobe; and although some doubt did arise unto us, whether your Majesty's letters intended a stay of our labours, until you had made choice of the sub-committee intended by you; yet presuming that such a course by sub-committee was purposed rather for a fartherance, than let to that work, we did resolve to go on still till your Majesty's farther directions shall come unto us; and then according to our duty we will proceed, as we shall be by your Majesty commanded. In the mean time we thought it our duty to inform your Majesty of what we have done, that neither your Majesty may conceive that we have been negligent in those things which were committed unto us, nor your directions by your late letters hinder or cast back that which is already so far proceeded in. And so humbly kissing your royal hands, and praying to the Almighty for your long and happy reign over us, we rest

Your Majesty's most humble and obedient subjects and servants,

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and fresh suit, upon the king's business, than that the same is yet ripe, either for advertisement, or advice.

The sub-commissioners meet forenoon and afternoon, with great diligence, and without distraction or running several ways: which if it be no more than necessary, what would less have done? that is, if there had been no sub-commissioners, or they not well chosen.

I speak with Sir Lionel Cranfield, as cause requireth either for account or direction, and as far as I can, by the taste I have from him, discern probably their service will attain, and may exceed his Majesty's expectation.

I do well like the course they take, which is, in every kind to set down, as in beer, in wine, in beef, in muttons, in corn, &c. what cometh to the king's use, and then what is spent, and lastly what may be saved. This way, though it be not so accusative, yet it is demonstrative. "Nam rectum est index sui et obliqui," and the false manner of accounting, and where the gain cleaveth, will appear after by consequence. I humbly pray his Majesty to pardon me for troubling him with these imperfect glances, which I do, both because I know his Majesty thinketh long to understand somewhat, and lest his Majesty should conceive, that he multiplying honours and favours upon me, I should not also increase and redouble my endeavours and cares for his service. God ever bless, preserve, and prosper his Majesty and your lordship, to whom I ever remain,

Your true and most devoted servant,

16 Jan. 1617.



BECAUSE you shall not lose your labour this afternoon, which now I must needs spend with my lord chancellor, I send my desire to you in this letter, that you will take care not to leave the writing, which I left with you last, with any man, so long, as that he may be able to take a copy of it; because, first, it must be censured by you, and then considered again by me. The thing which I expect most from you is, that you would read it carefully over by yourself, and to make some little note in writing, where you think, to speak like a critic, that I do perhaps indormiscere, or where I do indulgere genio; or where, in fine, I give any manner of disadvantage to myself. This, super totam materiam, you must not fail to note: besides, all such words and phrases as you cannot like; for you know in how high account I have your judgment.

special warrant made lord chancellor, Rymer XVII. p. 55, and at which time probably some affairs, that required privacy and retirement, might occur.



I THOUGHT fit by this my private letter to your lordship, to give you an account of such business as your lordship hath recommended unto me, that you may perceive that I have taken that care of them I ought, and ever shall in those you recommend or remit to me.

For the suit of the alehouses which concerneth your brother Mr. Christopher Villiers, and Mr. Patrick Mawl, I have conferred with my lord chief justice and Mr. Solicitor thereupon, and there is a scruple in it that it should be one of the grievances put down in parliament; which if it be, I may not in my duty and love to you advise you to deal in it; if it be not, I will mold it in the best manner and help it forward. The stay is upon the search of the clerk of the parliament, who is out of town; but we have already found, that the last grievance in septimo, is not the same with this suit; but we doubt yet of another in tertio.

For the business of Mr. Leviston, for your lordship's sake, who I perceive keeps your noble course with me, in acquainting me with these things, I shall apply myself unto you; though in my nature I do desire that those that serve in the court where I sit, though they be not in places of my gift, and so concerns not me nor my place in profit; yet I wish, I say, I might leave them in as good case as I find them. And this suit concerneth the main profit of the six clerks; who though they be of the master of the rolls his gift, yet they serve in my court. But my greatest doubt is, that the grant cannot be good in law; and that it is not like those other precedents, whereof I have received a note. For the difference is, where things have been written by all the clerks indifferently and loosely, in which case the king may draw them into an office; and where they have appertained to one especial office; in which case the king can no more take away the profits of a man's office, than he can the profits of his land. Therefore I think your lordship may do well to write to Mr. Solicitor † and serjeant Finch, or some other lawyers that you trust, or such as Mr. Leviston trusteth, being persons of account, to inform you of the point in law, before you proceed any farther: for without that all is in vain.

For the business of Hawkins, touching the register for the commission of bankrupts; I am not yet satisfied likewise for the law, nor for the conveniency; but I rather incline to think it may pass ; and I have set it in a course by which it may be throughly informed. For Sir Rowland Egerton's cause, and his lady's, the parties have submitted themselves unto me, and are content to do it by bond, and therefore I will

Stephens's Second Collection, p. 73.

† Sir Thomas Coventry.

Sir Henry Finch, serjeant at law, being the first of his name that made a considerable figure in that profession, shall give a short account of him. He was younger brother to Sir Moyle Finch, of Eastwel in the county of Kent, and father of John, lord Finch, keeper of the great seal in the reign of king Charles I. He died in 1625, leaving to poste

undoubtedly make an end of it according to justice and conscience.

For Sir Gilbert Houghton's business, I am in very good hope to effect your lordship's desire for his good. For Moor's business, concerning the printing of books, after hearing all parties, I have sealed his patent; but for his former patent of salt, I dare not do it, without acquainting the council therewith, which I am ready to do if he require that course to be taken.


If his Majesty at any time ask touching the lord Clifton's business, I pray your lordship represent to his Majesty thus much: that whatsoever hath passed, I thank God I neither fear nor hate him; but I am wonderful careful of the seats of justice, that they may still be well munited, being principal sinews of his Majesty's authority. Therefore the course will be, as I am advised, that for this hainous misprision, that the party, without all colour or shadow of cause, should threaten the life of his judge, and of the highest judge of the kingdom next his Majesty, he be first examined, and if he confess it, then an ore tenus; if he confess it not, then an information in the star-chamber, and he to remain where he is till the hearing. But I do purposely forbear yet to have him examined, till the decree or agreement between him and my lord Aubigny, which is now ready, be perfected, lest it should seem an oppression, by the terror of the one, to beat him down in the other. Thus I ever rest

Your lordship's true friend and devoted servant,
York-house, Jan. 25, 1617.

I pray your lordship to pardon me, if in respect of a little watering in one of mine eyes, I have written this letter, being long and private business, in my secretary's hand.



I HAVE received your lordship's letters, wherein I see the continuance of your love and respect to me, in any thing I write you of, for which I give your lordship many thanks, desiring nothing for any man but what you shall find just and convenient to pass. I am very glad to understand that there is so good hope of Sir Gilbert Houghton's business, which I must needs ascribe to your lordship's great favour toward him for my sake, which I will ever acknowledge. If his Majesty at any time speak of the lord Clifton's business, I will answer according to that your lordship hath written, &c.

Your lordship's faithful servant, G. BUCKINGHAM. Newmarket, the last of Jan. 1617. rity a sufficient testimony of his learning in the law, as well as the sciences, in his book entitled, "A Description of the Common Laws of England according to the rules of art, &c." His son's good parts and elocution were acknowledged by the greatest of his enemies; which accomplishments, though he died without issue, have eminently appeared in some other descendants from his honourable family. Stephens. § Stephens's Second Collection, p. 75.


IT MAY PLEASE YOUR MOST EXCELLENT MAJESTY, FINDING as well by your Majesty's despatches and directions to your council, as now by speech with Mr. Secretary Lake, that your Majesty is content to be troubled with business of sundry natures; I thought good, according to the duty of my place, and the necessity of the occasion, to put your Majesty in mind, that on this day seven-night, being Friday in the morning, I am, according to custom, to give a charge and admonition to the judges and justices of peace now before the circuits, wherein I am humbly to crave your Majesty's pleasure and directions.

I have for your Majesty's better ease set down the heads, which by the prescript of your book, and out of the consideration of the present times, I have thought fittest to be remembered. I have also sent your Majesty the last account of the judges' circuits, not to trouble you with the reading of them all; but to the end that if upon my memorial, or otherwise out of your Majesty's own memory, which is above memorials, you should have occasion to resort to those accounts, the papers may be by you.

The point of greatest weight, in my opinion, is the carrying of a balanced hand at this time in the matter of recusants, in regard of the treaty with Spain. For it were good, in respect of your people, that there were no note made, that the string is relaxed, and in respect of the treaty, that it is not strained; and therefore that the proceeding in those causes be rather diligent than severe.

I am wonderful glad to hear that this extremity of weather, which I think the Muscovite hath brought with him, hath not touched your Majesty, whose health and ease is far dearer to me than my life with all the appurtenances. God ever preserve and prosper you,

Your Majesty's most faithful and most obliged servant, FR. BACON, CANC. Friday morning, Feb. 6, 1617.

Your Majesty will be pleased your answer be with me on Thursday at noon, or soon after.



I HAVE acquainted his Majesty with your letter to me, and delivered likewise to him the letter and other things directed to his Majesty, who hath commanded me to return this answer to them all.

First, For your memorial of your charge to the judges, he liketh it so well, that he findeth nothing either to be added or diminished, and was so well satisfied therewith, that he accounteth it needless to read the other papers, but sealed them up again, and sendeth them back to your lordship without reading • Stephens's Second Collection, p. 76.

them. Only in the point of recusants his Majesty is of the quite contrary opinion to you; for though he would not by any means have a more severe course held, than his laws appoint in that case, yet sith the many reasons why, there should be no mitigation above that which his laws have enacted, and his own conscience telleth him to be fit. As first, the papists in his kingdom have taken such heart upon the commission given to Sir John Digby touching the match with Spain, that they have sent copies thereof privately up and down, and are so lifted up in their hopes of what they desire, that his Majesty cannot but take a more severe course, as far as by his laws he may, than hitherto he hath done. Besides, when they shall see a harder hand carried toward them than hath been accustomed, his Majesty assureth himself, they will employ all their means to farther the match, in hope of mitigating of that severity when it shall be accomplished. And though these reasons were not, his Majesty would account it a baseness in a prince to show such a desire of the match, as to slack any thing in his course of government, much more in propagation of the religion he professeth, for fear of giving hinderance to the match thereby. And so with many thanks for your favours to my brother in his business, I rest Your lordship's faithful servant, G. BUCKINGHAM.

Newmarket, 8 Feb. 1617.



MR. Chancellor of the exchequer hath signified to me this day, that yesterday his Majesty called him to his coach, and said to him, that one that had used ill speech of me should be called before me, and make his submission to me; and thereupon be called before the council, and receive a sharp reprehension, and so be enlarged. And Mr. Chancellor could not tell me who the person was, but after by some letter he received from my lord Clifton, and speech with a man of his, he perceived it was he.

I pray your lordship in humbleness to let his Majesty know, that I little fear the lord Clifton, but I much fear the example, that it will animate ruffians and rodomonti extremely against the seats of justice, which are his Majesty's own seats, yea, and against all authority and greatness, if this pass without public censure and example; it having gone already so far as that the person of a baron hath been committed to the Tower. The punishment it may please his Majesty to remit, and I shall not formally but heartily intercede for him: but an example, setting myself aside, I wish for terror of persons that may be more dangerous than he, towards the least judge of the kingdom.

Therefore it may please his Majesty to speak of it with myself and my lords, when he cometh next, and in the mean time I will command, from his + Ibid. p. 77. Ibid. p. 79.

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