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Ad reconciliandum apostatam a fide.
Forma excommunicationis.



Here I must mention a remarkable volume in the Cotton library: it is called in the catalogue "Servitium de omni officio episcopali, concernente chorum:" and this it certainly is: containing those portions only, either noted throughout, or having the intonation at the beginning, (as in the psalms) which would be sung by the choir, on occasions of the Bishop officiating. Some few places of the Pontifical are given, sufficient to connect one part with another; and frequent reference is made to it. Thus: "in dedicatione ecclesiæ omnia præparentur sicut habetur in pontificali."

It is apparent that, as the ritual of the Church of England is at present constituted, her rubrics admitting of no differences of ceremonial between a priest or a Bishop officiating in those ordinances which are common to both, very many of the orders in the above table are not now required. But it is to be wished that her Pontifical had not been reduced to so low a condition as to contain the offices of ordination and those only:7 joined, as if almost an afterthought, to the book of Common Prayer, and not always accompanying that. We believe it to be a most certain truth, that where there is no Bishop, there can be no Church; and I cannot see what objection could have been made to some not excessive variations in the ceremonial of the Church of England, which would have given addi

• Vespasian. D. 1. A beautiful MS. sm. 8vo. 63 folios.

7 The Order of Confirmation,

following probably the example of the old manuals, was originally inserted in the body of the Book, and has ever since remained there.

tional dignity to those solemn occasions when her Bishops officiate.

In the year 1643, there was "a design in deliberation touching the drawing and digesting of an English Pontifical, to be approved by the convocation, and tendered to his Majesty's confirmation; which said pontifical was to contain the form and manner of a coronation; a form to be observed by all Archbishops and Bishops for consecrating churches, churchyards, and chapels; and a third for reconciling such penitents as had either done open penance, or had revolted from the faith. Which three, together with the form of Confirmation, and that of ordering Bishops, Priests, and Deacons, were to make up the whole body of the book intended. But the troubles of the time growing greater and greater, it was thought expedient to defer the prosecution of it to a fitter conjuncture." This conjuncture has not yet happened: when in good time it does, it would be well also to add other offices for the benediction of holy vestments, and vessels, and Church ornaments and altars, which since the reign of Queen Mary, have continually been blessed by Bishops of the Church of England, and priests to whom licence has been given, but according to no settled, and it may be improper Forms.9

8 Heylin. Cyprianus Anglicus. be seen in the Hierurgia Anglip. 441.

Many instances of such benedictions and consecrations may

cana: a work of great value; most important in its design, and ably executed.

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HERE are remaining for our consideration the contents of Service-books, which although complete in themselves, yet were but portions of the larger volumes, which I have already treated of; and were intended for great solemnities, or for the choir, or, as of the orders of baptism and burial, were written or printed separately, to be at hand and useful for frequent occasions. Some of these have been explained above and I propose, for I see no necessity to the contrary, to be brief in my notice of the rest.

The "Benedictionale" contained the Episcopal benedictions which were said during the canon, anciently by all churches, although now discontinued, according to the Use of the Church of Rome. In the possession of his Grace the Duke of Devonshire is a most magnificent Benedictionale, originally S. Æthelwold's, a contemporary of S. Dunstan, and Bishop of Winchester. This has been excellently edited by Mr. Gage with fac-similes of the illuminations, and published for the society of antiquaries. 10 Another is in the library at Rouen, which has been collated, and the few differences noted, by the same learned editor. This is said to have belonged to Robert Archbishop of Canterbury, A.D. 1052 and is similar in almost all respects, to that of Ethelwold. The Benedictionale is contained in the Exeter pontifical, but the forms are totally dif

10 Archæologia. Vol. 24,

ferent. The rubric at the beginning is, “Incipiunt benedictiones per anni circulum: editæ a venerabili patre Fratre Johanne de Peccham Archiepiscopo Cant." No. 16, in the contents of the Bangor MS., is also a Benedictionale. In the Cotton library, Tiberius B. iij. contains only the Episcopal Benedictions. In the Harleian, No. 2892 is a very noble MS. of the xth century, also a Benedictionale. The "Benedictionale S. Dunstani" was preserved at Glastonbury until, at least, the xiij th century."

The Roman pontifical printed by Junta, Fol. 1520, contains the Episcopal Benedictions, beginning fol. 236. b. and running on to the end of the volume: 18 folios. This is an edition therefore which is highly to be prized. It states, however, that the Roman Church no longer (at that time) used them. "Has autem

benedictiones ecclesia Romana non habet in usu: sed in fine missæ dicuntur. Sit nomen Domini benedictum, &c." But although the custom was so early discontinued according to the Roman Use, it by no means follows, as the editor of Ethelwold's Benedictional has well observed, that it was so in the English Church. It is true that there is no reference to the practice in the printed missals of Sarum or York: but neither is there in manuscript missals which are contemporary with Bishop Lacey's pontifical, so that no conclusion can be drawn from such an omission. The Sarum manuals plainly speak of it: and in its proper place in the canon, though the benedictions themselves are not given. The rubric is "Deinde si episcopus celebraverit: diaconus ad populum conversus baculum episcopi

11 Hearne. Johan. Glaston. Chronic. p. 443.

in dextera tenens: curvatura baculi ad se conversa dicat hoc modo: Humiliate vos ad benedictionem. Chorus respondeat: Deo gratias," &c.12

I must not omit, that the " Benedictionale" is occasionally to be understood rather as the pontifical: for example, in the inventory of S. Paul's, A. D. 1295, we find "Benedictionale Willielmi Episcopi annuale, male ligatum; in quo continentur benedictiones abbatum, et consecrationes regum, et qualiter concilium agi debeat, et omnium ordinandi." 13 The three "Benedictionalia" formerly at Durham, were most probably properly so called.1

The " Baptismale," or " Baptisterium," unless, as there are instances, used as a title of the ritual or manual, contained the order of Baptism. Under the latter name, it is mentioned in the penitential of which I have given an account above, p. cv., as one of the books which every priest was bound to have. I know no copy of a Baptismale, even in MS., of the English Church: but I possess a small volume, containing also the office for blessing water and salt, of which the title is, "Catechuminorum et Benedictionis Salis et Aquæ libellus." This is a foreign Use: "juxta ritum Cenetensis Ecclesiæ." Upon vellum; no printer's name ; date, 1546.

The "Cærimoniale" and " Liber Sacrarum Cærimoniarum" are modern books: they contain full directions for the services and ceremonies to be observed when Bishops or the Pope officiate. The prayers are

I purposely quote from a late edition, London, 1554. 13 Dugdale. St. Paul's. p. 221.


14 Catalogi Veteres. p. 34. and again, p. 111.


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