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diœcesis suæ, et ab episcopo confirmati, non conjugati, nec aliqua irregularitatis aut inhabilitatis nota respersi. In quibus vero casibus episcopus potest dispensare primo cum eis dispenset, et si non sunt confirmati, confirmet eos ut supra.

ferri potest." And in his commentary upon this, Catalani has fallen into an error, where he says that the Tonsure, 66 ex omnium scriptorum sententia, et ex recepta ecclesiæ praxi, quovis anni tempore, qualibet die, et hora, et loco conferri potest." Comment. in Pontif. Rom. Tom. 1. p. 49. That the modern Roman Use knows no limit as to time for the conferring of the Tonsure, is evident from a comparison of the rubric at the commencement of the office "De minoribus ordinibus," concerning which last it is expressly stated to be lawfully conferred “in mane tantum.”

The general opinion of the canonists seems to be, that a bishop might have conferred the tonsure (but not other orders, even the minor) out of his own diocese, "subditis suis." This however would be influenced by the custom of the time. The reader will find more remarks upon this subject in the preliminary dissertation.

5 Under this head would fall ignorance, such as of the rudiments of the Faith, or to be unable to read or write. As to the first, from the earliest ages a knowledge of the creed was required


of those who were to be baptized, and much more therefore of candidates for the ministry: as to the second, whatever the practice might have been, the theory in England always was, that every clerk should be able at least to read: and this was the well-known test by which men were allowed "benefit of clergy." In the thirteenth century, it was strictly forbidden by Boniface VIII, "Nequis episcopus infanti, vel illiterato tonsuram clericalem conferret, ita ut qui contrafecerit, in eo in quo peccaverit puniatur, per unum annum a collatione clericalis tonsuræ dumtaxat noverit se suspensum." De temp. Ordin. cap. ult.

6 See Vol. 1. p. 34.

That confirmation should precede ordination to any rank or degree in the ministry of the Church, is a very ancient rule, and, I doubt not, apostolic. To this effect it would certainly seem that we should interpret the viij th canon of the council of Nice: « Περί των όνομαζοντων μεν έαυτους Καθαρους ποτε, προσερχομε νων δε τη καθολική και αποστολική εκκλησία, έδοξε τῇ άγια και με γαλῃ συνοΐῳ, ώστε χειροθετουμενους αυτους μενειν όντως εν τῷ


Et debet hoc sacramentum et omnia alia, excepta causa necessitatis, a jejuno et jejunis ministrari. Masculi vero teneant masculos, et feminæ femellas, nullus tamen aut nulla proprios. Si sint adulti aut dolo capaces, prius tenentur confiteri, quia olim etiam solebant postea communicare. Et si sint ita magni quod nequeant brachiis portari, stent appodiando super pedem compatris aut commatris, quia hoc sacramentum datur ad robur, sicut Spiritus Sanctus dabatur de cœlo apostolis ad plenam constantiam Christum confitendi et prædicandi. Episcopus autem stando cum stola, aut lassatus sedendo, sed nunquam equitando, officium confirmationis exequatur.

Kλnow." Some have interpreted
this sentence of the canon to mean,
an imposition of hands by way of
reconciliation only, or penance:
others, that it enjoined a reordi-
nation. But the first is impossible,
because the canon is speaking of
some certain rite to be used only
with regard to the Novatians, and
none others: which was not true
of penance or reconciliation. The
suggestion as to reordination is
equally erroneous: for the council
expressly recognized the Novatian
Orders, leaving (as Beverege in
his Notes says) their bishops,
bishops and their priests, priests:
and this learned writer appeals to
the ancient scholiasts, Balsamon
and Zonaras, upon the point. Cf.
Beverege. Pandect. Canon. Tom.
1. p. 68. Annott. Tom. 2. p. 67.
and Routh. Script. Ecc. Opusc.
Tom. 2. p. 437. There is more-
over no doubt that denial of the

grace of confirmation was a chief
heresy of the Novatians. S. Cor-
nelius in his epistle to Fabius
charges it against their leader, in
a particular case: Theodoret de-
clares the same: and as if to set
the question, as to the Nicene
canon, completely at rest, we have
the contemporary order of the
synod of Laodicea, in the year
320. "Quod ii, qui ex hæresibus,
hoc est, Novatianis, —,,- con-
vertuntur, -,,— non sunt admit-
tendi priusquam omnem hæresin
deinceps eos, qui apud illos fideles
dicebantur, fidei symbola discentes,
et sancto Chrismate inunctos, sic
sancto mysterio communicare."
Compare the vijth canon of the
2nd General Council, and the
scholia of Balsamon and Zonaras:
Bevereg. Pandect. Tom. 1. p. 97.


et tunc

Modus faciendi tonsuras vel coronas primas, et ordinandi clericos genuflectentes coram episcopo, hoc modo: Sit nomen Domini benedictum.

Ex hoc.

Adjutorium nostrum in nomine Domini.
Qui fecit.

7 The Winchester and Bangor MSS. begin this office with the exhortation, "Oremus, dilectissimi," &c. called by the first, the Præfatio;" by the second, the "Benedictio ad clericum faciendum." In the Exeter pontifical we have a commencement different from the other three. "Præfatio ad coronam faciendam. V. Adjutorium nostrum. etc. R. Qui fecit. Dominus vobiscum. Oremus. Oremus, dilectissimi. etc." 8" Ita vero necessariam ordinandis duxerunt genuflexionem antiqui patres, ut etiam Dominicis diebus, ac toto Paschali tempore, quo in genua procumbere nefas est, prohibitumque ex canone xx. Nicæno, suscepturos Ordines voluerint nonnisi genuflexione initiari. Quamobrem Alexander III. Pontifex Maximus relatus in Cap. II, De Feris, ita inquit: In consecrationibus autem episcoporum, et clericorum ordinationibus, consecrans et consecraturus tantum genua flectere possunt, secundum quod consecrationis modus requirit.' Quæ verba referenda sunt ad discrimen jam superius explicatum.

Meminit denique me

morati ritus et S. Ambrosius Lib. vj. Hexameron, Cap. ix. ubi [aliam] reddit rationem his plane verbis: Flexibile genu, quo præ cæteris Domini mitigatur offensa, ira mulcetur, gratia promovetur : unde ordinator, et ordinandus genua flectunt, ut divinam gratiam uterque digne promoveat, unus recipiat, alter conferat."" Catalani. Comment. in Pontif. Rom. tom. 1. p. 62. Cf. Goar. Euchol. p. 279. note 10.

It does not appear that the bishop was of necessity to be fully vested, except he was about to perform this office, during the celebration of the Eucharist: when of course, on account of that holy service, and not on account of the conferring the tonsure, it would be required. A MS. in the Vatican, cited by Catalani (Comment. in Pontif. Rom. tom. 1. p. 56), has a rubric very important on this point. "Prima tonsura potest dari omni tempore, sive in missa, sive extra missam, sive in mane, sive sero, dummodo episcopus habeat stolam, et ordinatus superpelliceum."


Oremus, dilectissimi fratres, Dominum nostrum Jesum Christum, pro hoc famulo suo, qui ad deponendam comam capitis sui pro ejus amore, et exemplo beati Petri apostoli festinat, ut donet ei Spiritum Sanctum, qui propositum religionis 10 in eo perpetue conservet, et a mundi impedimentis vel sæcularibus desideriis cor ejus defendat, ut sicut immutatur vultu, ita manus dextera sua ei virtutem perfectionis et boni operis tribuat incrementum, et abjecta omni cæcitate humana, spirituales illi oculos aperiat, et lumen ei æternæ gloriæ concedat. Per Christum.

Sequitur psalmus.“

10 The other pontificals read: "qui habitum religionis."

"The Sarum pontifical varies very considerably from hence down to the conclusion of the office, from all the other MSS. I shall extract the remainder as it is in the Bangor Use, with which, except some unimportant differences, the Winchester and the

Exeter agree.

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"Tunc incipiatur ps. Conserva me, Domine. etc. et repetatur psalmus usque ad illum versum, Dominus pars hæreditatis.

"Tunc quilibet tonsurandorum per se dicat eundem versum : Dominus pars.

"Interim pontifex ter incidat

"æternæ gloriæ concedat. aliquam partem de capillis, pri

Qui vivit.

"Deinde super tonsurandos ponatur superpelliceum, et dicat pontifex hanc orationem: *

"Adesto, Domine, supplicationibus. etc.

"Tunc omnes tonsurandi simul dicant:

This rubric occurs only in

the Bangor MS.

mo dicens: In nomine Patris ; secundo: et Filii; tertio: et Spiritus Sancti.

"Omnibus vero sic tonsis, dicatur residua pars psalmi, cum Gloria Patri. Quo finito, omnes tonsurati dicant simul hunc versum: Dominus pars.

"Postea incipiatur antiphona: Hic accipiet benedictionem,


Conserva me, Domine, quoniam speravi in te; dixi Domino, Deus meus es tu ; quoniam bonorum meorum

non eges.

Sanctis qui sunt in terra ejus: mirificavit omnes voluntates meas in eis.

Multiplicatæ sunt infirmitates eorum: postea accele


Non congregabo conventicula eorum de sanguinibus: nec memor ero nominum eorum per

Hic quilibet ordinandus per se dicat:

labia mea.

Dominus pars hæreditatis meæ, et calicis mei: tu es, qui restitues hæreditatem meam mihi.

Interim episcopus incidat ter aliquam partem de capillis, primo dicens,

In nomine Patris,

Et Filii,

Et Spiritus Sancti. Amen.
Tunc dicitur residua pars psalmi.

Funes ceciderunt mihi in præclaris: enim hæreditas mea præclara est mihi.

Benedicam Dominum qui tribuit mihi intellectum : insuper et usque ad noctem increpuerunt me renes mei.

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