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THE Service Book, called the Processional, contains directions for the various processions in the course of the Church services, with the antiphons, responsories, proses, &c., then chanted, to which are added, for convenience sake, certain offices with which the processions are connected, as for example the blessing of flowers and palms on Palm Sunday, and many ceremonies in Holy Week.

This reprint of the Sarum Processional is taken from the first known edition, that of 1508, printed at Rouen, by Morin, and now in the library of Bamburgh Castle. With this the following editions have been collated :

1.-1517. P. Morin. Queen's College, Oxford.
2.-1528. Rouen. Ruremond. Queen's College, Oxford.
3.-1544. Rouen. Vid. Ruremond. York Cathedral Library.
4.-1545. Rouen. Vid. Ruremond. York Cathedral Library.
5.-1554. London.
Cosin's Library, Durham.

Whenever in the notes any of these editions are referred to,
followed by &c., all the above that are subsequent to the one
specified are meant to be included.

Several other editions have been partly collated, especially 1523, 1525, 1528, and 1532, from the British Museum, and three manuscript copies :


No. 2942. Sec. XIV.

Harleian. No. 2945. Sæc. XV., early.

And Bodleian Add. MSS. B 20. Sæc. XIV., late.


The additional matter contained in the later editions is marked by strong brackets, and the chief variations are given in the notes. The two first editions, 1508 and 1517, appear to be clearly the most correct, and fortunately they are quite independent of each other.

The colophon of the 1508 book will be found at the end of this reprint; the title is as follows:

Processionale ad usum insignis ac præclara ecclesiæ Sarum noviter ac rursus castigatum per excellentissimum ac vigilantissimum et reverendissimum in Christo patrem domnum nostrum episcopum de Wynton feliciter incipit. The bishop referred to is Richard Fox, of Winchester, whose arms follow on the title page. The title of the edition of 1517 is

Processionale ad usum matris ecclesiæ Sar. recentissime ac de novo ampliatum et ultra prius impressa tam in notulis et precibus juxta antiquam et modernam veritatem solerti vigilantia ac diligenti cura correctum atque emendatum Rothomagi per Magistrum Martinum Morin impressum. Impensis honesti viri Johannis Caillard librarii dicti Rothomagi commorantis. Anno Domini millesimo quingentesimo decimo septimo.

The most notable variation between the editions collated is the omission of the part of the Prophet in the Procession on Palm Sunday, which as far as I am aware is only found in the first two editions, and in a Marian one of 1555, belonging to Mr. J. D. Chambers. The office for S. Thomas of Canterbury is erased in some editions, entirely omitted in others. It is not restored in the 1554 book.

Of woodcuts there are two sets: first, that of the 1508 book, of which facsimiles are given in this volume; I have not found this set repeated in any other edition. Secondly, that found in all such later editions that I have seen which have woodcuts. One

of these, which is additional to those of 1508, will be found at page 12. The copes of the priests and rulers of the choir are more correctly drawn in the second set, otherwise there is little difference between them, except that the first is much the clearer of the two.

In these woodcuts only two of the symbols need be noticed— 1st, the Tau-shaped figures to represent the staves of the rulers of the choir. Rulers' staves were ordinarily made of this shape, and of boxwood, allowing an image or other ornament to be placed on them. See Walcott's "Glossary of Sacred Archæology," under the words "baton" and "staff," and Pugin's "Glossary of Ecclesiastical Ornament and Costume," where a simple staff, much of this shape but of more costly materials, is described. The staves that are engraved in various books are of a far more costly character. Secondly, in the woodcut for processions on Saturdays from Trinity to Advent, p. 129, are two conical projections on the heads of the chanters or rulers of the choir; these are not found in the second set of woodcuts. I take them to be the apparels of the amyce. In Picart's "Book of Religious Ceremonies," in the plate for Palm Sunday, the amyces are drawn exactly in this way, though on the centre of the forehead. See too Pugin's article on "Amyces," where this drawing of Picart's is referred to.

A few remarks may be excused upon one or two terms, especially as used in the Processional.

"Proses," apparently so called as being canticles not bound by strict laws of rhythm or metre, were originally words set to the neuma, p. 97, or cadence which followed the Alleluia. Of these there are two forms in this volume-1st, the ordinary prose or sequence, as on Christmas and the four following days, and on the Circumcision; 2nd, a set in elegiac metre for the great days from Easter to the Name of Jesus. A few proses

which were not sung in procession are added at the end of the

1508 book only.

"Verse" and "versicle" are certainly used in the Processionals as interchangeable, but almost invariably the verse sung at the close of the procession at the choir step by the priest is called, where words are given at length, versiculus and not versus.

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"Antiphon" and "responsory" are terms of perpetual recurrence. Antiphon" is occasionally used in its stricter sense of the refrain to a psalm, but "responsory" is never used as the refrain to a lesson. Omitting the few cases where "antiphon" is used in its proper sense, as on Easter Eve and Easter Day, the distinction is simply as to mode of singing. An antiphon was sung straight through, and it might or might not be followed by a verse. A responsory was first sung through; a verse followed, ending with repetition of some part of the responsory; then, sung by the choir, ordinarily followed Gloria Patri. The whole was concluded with another verse, which usually ended with the same part of the responsory as the first verse, or occasionally with a portion only of that part; the part of the responsory so taken falling in with and carrying on the sense of each of the verses.

"Historia" denotes (1) the lections taken from a historical book of the Old Testament; (2) lections from any Old Testament book; then, as all sets of lections were accompanied with their corresponding responsories, it was used (3) to denote any such set of responsories, named from the first few words of the first responsory; so p. 6, Historia Deus Omnium-i.e., the responsories for the first Sunday after Trinity; and so (4) any set of responsories, which got their title from the first. So p. 60, Historia In Monte Oliveti.

The "Tabula" were the boards upon which were written from

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