Tobacco Use by Native North Americans: Sacred Smoke and Silent Killer

Front Cover
Joseph C. Winter
University of Oklahoma Press, 2000 - 454 pages

Recently identified as a killer, tobacco has been the focus of health warnings, lawsuits, and political controversy. Yet many Native Americans continue to view tobacco-when used properly-as a life-affirming and sacramental substance that plays a significant role in Native creation myths and religious ceremonies.

This definitive work presents the origins, history, and contemporary use (and misuse) of tobacco by Native Americans. It describes wild and domesticated tobacco species and how their cultivation and use may have led to the domestication of corn, potatoes, beans, and other food plants. It also analyzes many North American Indian practices and beliefs, including the concept that Tobacco is so powerful and sacred that the spirits themselves are addicted to it. The book presents medical data revealing the increasing rates of commercial tobacco use by Native youth and the rising rates of death among Native American elders from lung cancer, heart disease, and other tobacco-related illnesses. Finally, this volume argues for the preservation of traditional tobacco use in a limited, sacramental manner while criticizing the use of commercial tobacco.

Contributors are: Mary J. Adair, Karen R. Adams, Carol B. Brandt, Linda Scott Cummings, Glenna Dean, Patricia Diaz-Romo, Jannifer W. Gish, Julia E. Hammett, Robert F. Hill, Richard G. Holloway, Christina M. Pego, Samuel Salinas Alvarez, Lawrence A Shorty, Glenn W. Solomon, Mollie Toll, Suzanne E. Victoria, Alexander von Garnet, Jonathan M. Samet, and Gail E. Wagner.

 

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Contents

Traditional Uses of Tobacco by Native Americans
3
35
12
I4 Southern Ute men with Plainsstyle pipes and pipe bags
40
I7 N rustica field at San Juan Pueblo Agricultural Cooperative
46
O Tarahumara N tabacum Chihuahua Mexico 1953
53
Description of the North American Tobaccos
87
N rustica grown from seed from Santo Domingo Pueblo New Mexico
99
3
106
Captain John at the Hupa village of Medildin
294
Biochemistry Addiction and the Development
305
NonNicotiana species used as tobacco by the Navajo 2 74
309
Nicotine nornicotine and anabasine in tobacco species used
319
native North Americans 3 18
326
The Negative Health Effects of Tobacco
331
o Alkaloids in domesticated tobacco species 32 I
333
Selected surveys of cigarette smoking among American Indians
335

The Archaeobotanical Study of Tobacco
143
Nicotiana in late Pueblo and late Classic Hohokam sites
165
Nicotiana in historic sites
167
Archaeological tobacco on the Great Plains
179
Descriptions of Nicotiana and Solanum seeds
187
Sizes of charred prehistoric eastern tobacco seeds
188
4O Archaeological tobacco in eastern North America
191
4I Archaeological contexts and associations for eastern U S tobacco seeds
197
The Identification of Tobacco Pollen
205
Morphological Studies of New Mexico Solanaceae Pollen 2 II
211
Discriminant index scores by six and seven variables 2 I 9
219
Morphological key to genera of Solanaceae 2 2 I
221
I2 Morphological Distinctiveness of Nicotiana Pollen and
223
Pollen key
256
Evolution of the Use of Tobacco by Native Americans
265
Mortality rates for smokingrelated causes of death 19861988
336
Mortality rates for respiratory causes of death American Indians and Alaska Natives 19841988
337
Average annual cancer incidence rates 19781981
339
I6 The Huichol Indians Tobacco and Pesticides
342
Pesticides used in Mexican tobacco fields
351
Deer Persons Gift or Columbuss Curse?
353
Diffusion of trade tobacco to North American tribes 16031743
359
6o Sources of Native Americans tobacco in the eastern woodlands
361
How Coyote Learned
382
References
400
229
412
List of Contributors
435
46
439
I
447
Copyright

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