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Ethelred; "eat omnis presbyter cum populo suo ad processionem tribus diebus nudis pedibus." Bromton. Chron. Script. x. tom. 1. p. 902.
Penances were appointed to be done, in processions : I quote two or three cases, from archdeacon Hale's lately published extracts from the act-books of the ecclesiastical courts of the diocese of London. A. D. 1480. N°. xv. "-penitentia injuncta, quod in toga et camisia, nudis pedibus, precedat crucem processionaliter, cum candela precii unius denarii, et quam offerret processione finita." A. D. 1476. N°. xlj. "Johanna Talbot-habet 3 dominicis precedere processionem nudis pedibus, in kirtela, capite flammiola nodata cooperto, in parochia S. Dionysii." A. D. 1496. N°. ccvj. "-dominus injunxit sibi quod præcedat processionem in ecclesia cath. S. P. sequentem le vergears, crucem ligneam manu ejus deferendam et secularem prædicatorem usque crucem, et ibidem maneat, quousque sermo finetur, crucem hujusmodi manus ejus tenendam." Clergymen also were presented, for neglecting to attend processions: for example. "Clericus parochie ibidem notatur, quod non pergit in processionibus generalibus ut tenetur, juxta antiquum morem.” No. cclj. Compare, N°. ccccx.
A Syon monastery processional is preserved among the manuscripts of S. John's college, Oxford: this volume has English rubrics, for the use of "the sustres."
P. cxix. 7. 8. There are two imperfect MSS. which contain a few of the episcopal offices: one of these, Rawlinson, C. 425, belonged to some abbey: the other, Rawlinson, C. 400, is valuable, as it was the property of a bishop of Salisbury, and has a memorandum on the first page. "Hunc librum legavit dominus Rogerus
de Martivale, Sarisbirien. episcopus ecclesiæ cathedrali beatæ Mariæ Sarisbirien. Ita quod loci episcopus, qui pro tempore fuerit, habeat usum ejus si illum habere voluerit, cui tradatur per bonam memorandam, proprietate ipsius penes dictam ecclesiam remanente. Et mortuo quolibet episcopo loci qui ejus usum habuerit, dictæ ecclesiæ fideliter restituatur." Bishop Martivale died in 1329.
The Exeter pontifical (spoken of in the same page) has since been printed by permission of the dean and chapter. I congratulate myself on having been the first to point out its value, and rescue it from the neglect in which it had so long been permitted to remain. It would be well if the edition just published might be useful to the student; but I am bound, however unwillingly, to warn him against relying upon the accuracy of its text: and to acknowledge, that, in my judgment, the care and learning which have been shewn in the performance of the work, scarcely correspond to the zeal, worthy of all praise, which prompted the undertaking.
P. cxxxiv. note 30. Compare also, Matt. Paris: "in loco qui fuit inter altare sancti Oswini, ubi scilicet consuevit missa matutinalis celebrari, etc." Hist. p. 809. And the chronicle of W. Thorn: " quod tunc omni die celebraretur missa matutinalis." Script. x. tom. 2. p. 1910.
P. cxl. l. 3. From a hasty examination, I am inclined to think that a "capitularium" is bound up with a "collectare," among the manuscripts of Corpus Christi college, Oxford. (N°. 192.)
P. cxliij. . 5. Since the two first volumes of this work were published, I have satisfied myself that another book, the "Liber collationum," ought also to be
included among the ancient service books of the church of England. I had not then been able to see any copy of such a volume, or meet with one referred to or even mentioned by any ritualist. A copy however has been found among the MSS. which formerly belonged to Ford abbey, in Devonshire. It is a thick folio, upon vellum, written in a bold hand of the middle of the fifteenth century; and it is remarkable also, as having many English rubrics. It contains the short lections and homilies which were read, at various times of the year, chiefly during Lent, after collation; whence doubtless its name: which in later years came to be used for any sermon or homily.
Du Cange says: "Collatio, apud monachos præsertim, dicitur sacrorum librorum lectio, quæ statis horis, maxime post cœnam, coram iis fiebat:" and he proceeds to cite various orders of foreign councils to this effect. But that these lections, at least in England, were not limited to extracts from sacred writers, is evident from the Ford abbey manuscript, which has also sermons or homilies.
William of Malmesbury, speaking of bishop Wulstan, among other things says: "collationem quoque frequenter interebat." De gestis pontif. Angl. edit. Savile, p. 159. b. About the same time, we learn from Ingulph, that some classes of the monks of Croyland were privileged as regarded the Collation: " omnes de secundo gradu-sint absoluti de lectura martyrologii et collationis in capitulo,-et omnibus talibus minoribus chori et claustri laboribus." Hist. p. 105. Once more, there are printed in the Auctarium, at the end of the history of Matthew Paris, some monastic or hospital statutes: among them, one, " de lectione legenda in mensa. Ut fratres sacerdotes dum in mensa
fuerint consedentes, nedum corporum sed etiam animarum capiant alimenta, præcipimus quod dum fratres sacerdotes in mensa fuerint congregati, legat unus literatus coram eis per aliquod competens temporis spatium, aut de Biblia aut de scriptura sacra alia, lectionem; quem dum in legendo fuerit, fratres silentium tenendo, attente audiant et auscultent." P. 1164.
Cardinal Wolsey, in the year 1519, drew up some statutes for the regular canons of S. Augustine: of which one is directed to the collation: Wilkins, Concil. tom. 3. p. 686. In the royal injunctions of 1536, there is an order referring to "all sermones, and other collations." Ibid. Ibid. p. 814. Again, in the same year, a royal letter to the bishops, commands each "to travel from place to place in all his diocese, and endeavour himself every holiday to make a collation to the people." Ibid. p. 825. Once more, the bishop of London, in 1542, admonished his clergy what they were to teach, in their “preachings, open sermons, and collations." Ibid. p. 866. I have quoted these, as illustrative of the meaning of the term, down to the period at which it became, in such a sense, obsolete.
Dr. Oliver, in his work, the "Monasticon diœcesis Exoniensis," mentions a manuscript, formerly belonging to the priory of S. Andrew's, Cornwall, containing several books bound together: among them thirtythree homilies, which from the description given by the learned author, seems to have been the "liber collationum" of that priory. He says: "One of these was read at the collation or evening refreshment granted to the community before complin, on most of the weekdays in Lent: viz. from the first Monday until the last Wednesday inclusively; for no collation was allowed on the four first days, nor on the last three
days of that penitential season." 1." P. 36. This would certainly account for the number thirty-three in this case; but the use of Ford abbey was different: as they had "collations" not only at other times of the year, as I have already mentioned, but the manuscript contains, "On asche wedensday a collacon:" followed by, "For the fyrst weke of clene Lent a collacion."
P. cxlix. l. 4. White Kennett has plainly confused the two books, in the glossary prefixed to his parochial antiquities. The day of the "obit" was not always the day of the death of the individual, as Dr. Todd has well observed in his learned preface to the Dublin Martyrology, p. xxix: whence care must be taken in deciding, on the ground of such entries only, the date of the decease of an individual. Thus in a very early canon, the 17th of the council of Cloveshoo, in 747, we find the day of the burial ordered to be observed as an obit; Wilkins, concil. tom. 1. p. 97.
The calendars of any service-books, where regular necrologies were not kept, were used for the purpose of entering obits and festivals to be observed. William of Worcester in his Itinerary mentions many such; see, for example, p. 107: and numberless manuscripts still extant, prove the same thing. In the very curious inventory printed in the Archæologia, vol. 21. of effects belonging to Sir John Fastolfe, in the 15th century, occurs, belonging to his chapel, "j. Morlellege." The editor explains this, in a note, to have been the martyrology; which I much doubt: and
"In more ancient times the lecture was taken from one of the twenty-four Collationes Patrum, or conferences of the fathers in
the desert, and by degrees the refreshment itself obtained the name of collation." Ibid.