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while, and cure the queen's mind in that point. Therefore, again, whereas I heard your lordship design to yourself the earl marshal's place, or the place of master of the ordnance; I did not in my mind so well like of either, because of their affinity with a martial greatness. But of the places now void, in my judgment and discretion, I would name you to the place of lord privy seal. For first, it is the third person of the great officers of the crown. Next, it hath a kind of superintendence over the secretary. It hath also an affinity with the court of wards, in regard of the fees from the liveries; and it is a fine honour, quiet place, and worth a thousand pounds by year: and my lord admiral's father had it, who was a martial man: and it fits a favourite to carry her Majesty's image in seal, who beareth it best expressed in heart. But my chief reason is, that which I first alleged, to divert her Majesty from this impression of a martial greatness. In concurrence whereof, if your lordship shall not remit any thing of your former diligence at the starchamber; if you shall continue such intelligences as are worth the cherishing; if you shall pretend to be as bookish and contemplative as ever you were : all these courses have both their advantages and uses in themselves otherwise, and serve exceeding aptly to this purpose. Whereunto I add one expedient more, stronger than all the rest; and, for my own confident opinion, void of any prejudice or danger of diminution of your greatness; and that is, the bringing in of some martial man to be of the council; dealing directly with her Majesty in it, as for her service, and your better assistance; choosing nevertheless some person that may be known, not to come in against you, by any former division. I judge the fittest to be my lord Mountjoy, or my lord Willoughby. And if your lordship see deeplier into it than I do, that you would not have it done in effect; yet in my opinion, you may serve your turn by the pretence of it, and stay it nevertheless.

respect justly, the resemblance or imitation of my | loveth not charge. Thirdly, that kind of dependence lord of Leicester, and my lord chancellor Hatton; maketh a suspected greatness. Therefore, “quod yet I am persuaded, howsoever I wish your lord-instat agamus." Let that be a sleeping honour a ship as distant as you are from them in points of favour, integrity, magnanimity, and merit, that it will do you much good between the queen and you, to allege them, as oft as you find occasion, for authors and patterns: for I do not know a readier mean to make her Majesty think you are in your right way. Thirdly, when at any time your lordship upon occasion happen in speeches to do her Majesty right, for there is no such matter as flattery amongst you all, I fear you handle it "magis in speciem adornatis verbis, quam ut sentire videaris." So that a man may read formality in your countenance; whereas your lordship should do it familiarly," et oratione fida." Fourthly, your lordship should never be without some particulars afoot, which you should seem to pursue with earnestness and affection; and then let them fall, upon taking knowledge of her Majesty's opposition and dislike. Of which the weightiest sort may be, if your lordship offer to labour, in the behalf of some that you favour, for some of the places now void; choosing such a subject as you think her Majesty is like to oppose unto: and if you will say that this is " conjunctum cum aliena injuria," I will not answer, Hæc non aliter constabunt;" but I say, commendation from so good a mouth doth not hurt a man, though you prevail not. A less weighty sort of particulars may be the pretence of some journeys which at her Majesty's request your lordship might relinquish as if you would pretend a journey to see your living and estate towards Wales, or the like: for as for great foreign journeys of employment and service, it standeth not with your gravity to play or stratagem with them. And the lightest sort of particulars, which yet are not to be neglected, are in your habits, apparel, wearings, gestures, and the like. The impression of greatest prejudice next is that of a military dependence: wherein I cannot sufficiently wonder at your lordship's course, that you say, the wars are your occupation, and go on in that course: whereas, if I might have advised your lordship, you should have left that person at Plymouth more than when in counsel, or in commending fit persons for service for wars, where it had been in season. And here, my lord, I pray mistake me not: I am not to play now the part of a gown-man, that would frame you best to mine own turn. I know what I owe you. I am infinitely glad of this last journey, now it is past; the rather, because you may make so honourable a full point for a time. You have property good enough in that greatness: there is none can, of many years, ascend near you in competition. Besides, the disposing of the places and affairs both, concerning the wars, you increasing in other greatness, will of themselves flow to you; which will preserve that dependence in full measure. It is a thing that of all things I would have you retain, the times considered, and the necessity of the service; for other reason I know none: yet I say, keep it in substance, but abolish it in shows to the queen; for her Majesty loveth peace. Next, she

The third impression is of a popular reputation; which, because it is a thing good in itself, being obtained as your lordship obtaineth it, that is, bonis artibus; and besides, well governed, is one of the best flowers of your greatness both present and to come; it would be handled tenderly. The only way is to quench it verbis and not rebus. And therefore to take all occasions to the queen, to speak against popularity and popular courses vehemently; and to tax it in all others: but, nevertheless, to go on in your honourable commonwealth courses as you do. And therefore, I will not advise you to cure this, by dealing in monopolies, or any oppressions: only, if in parliament your lordship be forward for treasure in respect of the wars, it becometh your person well; and if her Majesty object popularity to you at any time, I would say to her, a parliament will show that; and so feed her with expectation.

The fourth impression, of the inequality between your estate of means, and your greatness of respects, is not to be neglected. For believe it, my lord, that

till her Majesty find you careful of your estate, she will not only think you more like to continue chargeable to her, but also have a conceit that you have higher imaginations. The remedies are, first, to profess it in all speeches to her: next, in such suits wherein both honour, gift, and profit may be taken, to communicate freely with her Majesty, by way of inducing her to grant, that it will be this benefit to you. Lastly, to be plain with your lordship, for the gentlemen are such as I am beholden to, nothing can make the queen, or the world, think so much that you are come to a provident care of your estate, as the altering of some of your officers; who though they be as true to you as one hand to the other, yet opinio veritate major; but if, in respect of the bonds they may be entered into for your lordship, you cannot so well dismiss yourself of them, this cannot be done but with time.

For a fifth and last, which is of the advantage of a favourite; as severed from the rest, it cannot hurt; so joined with them, it maketh her Majesty more fearful and shadowy, as not knowing her own strength. The only remedy to this, is to give way to some other favourite, as in particular you shall find her Majesty inclined; so as the subject hath no ill nor dangerous aspect towards yourself. For otherwise, whosoever shall tell me, that you may not have singular use of a favourite at your devotion, I will say he understandeth not the queen's affection, nor your lordship's condition. And so I rest.

October 4, 1596.


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I PRAY God her Majesty's weighing be not like the weight of a balance; gravia deorsum, levia sursum." But I am as far from being altered in devotion towards her, as I am from distrust that she will be altered in opinion towards me, when she knoweth me better. For myself, I have lost some opinion, some time, and some means; this is my account but then for opinion, it is a blast that goeth and cometh; for time, it is true, it goeth and cometh not; but yet I have learned that it may be redeemed.

For means, I value that most; and the rather, because I am purposed, not to follow the practice of the law, if her Majesty command me in any particular, I shall be ready to do her willing service; and my reason is only, because it drinketh too much time, which I have dedicated to better purposes. But even for that point of estate and means, I partly lean to Thales's opinion, That a philosopher may be rich if he will. Thus your lordship seeth how I comfort myself; to the increase whereof I would fain please myself to believe that to be true which my lord treasurer writeth; which is, that it is more than a philosopher can morally digest. But without any such high conceit, I esteem it like the pulling out of an aching tooth, which, I remember, when Rawley's Resuscitatio.

| I was a child, and had little philosophy, I was glad of when it was done. For your lordship, I do think myself more beholden to you than to any man: and I say, I reckon myself as a common, not popular, but common; and as much as is lawful to be enclosed of a common, so much your lordship shall be sure to have.

Your lordship's, to obey your honourable commands, more settled than ever.



YOUR lordship's so honourable minding my poor fortune the last year, in the very entrance into that great action, which is a time of less leisure, and in so liberal an allowance of your care, as to write three letters to stir me up friends in your absence, doth, after a sort, warrant me not to object to myself your present quantity of affairs, whereby to silence myself from petition of the like favour. I brake with your lordship myself at the Tower; and I take it my brother hath since renewed the same motion, touching a fortune I was in thought to attempt, in genere œconomico. In genere politico, certain cross winds have blown contrary. My suit to your lordship is for your several letters to be left with me dormant, to the gentlewoman, and either of her parents wherein I do not doubt, but as the beams of your favour have often dissolved the coldness of my fortune; so in this argument your lordship will do the like with your pen. My desire is also, that your lordship would vouchsafe unto me, as out of your care, a general letter to my lord keeper, for his lordship's holding me from you recommended; both in the course of my practice, and in the course of my employment in her Majesty's service: wherein, if your lordship shall in any antithesis or relation affirm, that his lordship shall have no less fruit of me than of any other whom he may cherish, I hope your lordship shall engage yourself for no impossibility. Lastly and chiefly, I know not whether I shall attain to see your lordship before your noble journey; for ceremonies are things infinitely inferior to my love and to my zeal. This let me, with your allowance, say unto you by pen. It is true, that in my well meaning advices, out of my love to your lordship, and perhaps out of the state of mine own mind, I have sometimes persuaded a course differing : ac tibi pro tutis insignia facta placebunt:" be it so, yet remember, that the signing of your name is nothing, unless it be to some good patent or charter, whereby your country may be endowed with good and benefit. Which I speak, both to move you to preserve your person for farther merit and service of her Majesty and your country, and likewise to refer this action to the same end. And so, in most true and fervent prayers, I commend your lordship, and your work in hand, to the preservation and conduct of the Divine Majesty; so much the more watchful, as these actions + Ibid.

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do more manifestly in show, though alike in truth, depend upon his divine providence.




I MAY perceive, by my lord keeper, that your lordship, as the time served, signified unto him an intention to confer with his lordship at better opportunity; which in regard of your several and weighty occasions, I have thought good to put your lordship in remembrance of; that now at his coming to the court it may be executed: desiring your good lordship, nevertheless, not to conceive out of this my diligence in soliciting this matter, that I am either much in appetite, or much in hope. For as for appetite, the waters of Parnassus are not like the waters of the Spaw, that give a stomach; but rather they quench appetite and desires. And for hope, how can he hope much, that can allege no other reason than the reason of an evil debtor, who will persuade his creditor to lend him new sums, and to enter farther in with him to make him satisfy the old? and to her Majesty no other reason, but the reason of a waterman; I am her first man of those who serve in counsel of law? and so I com

YOUR good promises sleep, which it may seem now no time to awake. But that I do not find that any general kalendar of observation of time serveth for the court and besides, if that be done, which I hope by this time is done; and that other matters shall be done, which we wish may be done, I hope to my poor matter, the one of these great matters may clear the way, and the other give the occasion. And though my lord treasurer be absent, whose health nevertheless will enable him to be sooner at court than is expected; especially if this hard weather, too hard to continue, shall relent; yet we abroad say, his lordship's spirit may be there, though his person be away. Once I take for a good ground, that her Majesty's business ought to keep neither vacation nor holy-day, either in the execution, or in the care and preparation of those whom her Ma-mit your lordship to God's best preservation. jesty calleth and useth: and therefore I would think no time barred from remembering that, with such discretion and respect as appertaineth. The conclusion shall be, to put you in mind to maintain that which you have kindly begun, according to the reliance I have upon the sincerity of your affection, and the soundness of your judgment. And so I commend you to God's preservation.

XXXVI. TO MY LORD OF ESSEX. + MY SINGULAR GOOD LORD, THE message it pleased your lordship to send me, was to me delivered doubtfully. Whether your lordship said you would speak with me at the starchamber, or with Mr. Philip. If with me, it is needless; for gratitude imposeth upon me satisfaction: if with Mr. Philip, it will be too late; because somewhat must, perchance, be done that day. This doubt not solved, maketh me write again; the rather because I did liberally, but yet privately, affirm your lordship would write; which if I make not good, it may be a discouragement. Your lordship's letter, though it have the subject of honour and justice, yet it shall have the secrecy of a thing done upon affection. shall ever in a firm duty submit my occasions, though great, to your lordship's respects, though small: and this is my resolution, that when your lordship doth for me, you shall increase my obligation; when you refuse to do for me, you shall increase my merit. So leaving the matter wholly to your lordship's pleasure, I commend your lordship to the preservation of the Divine Majesty.

Your lordship's ever most humbly bounden. From Gray's-Inn.

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I CANNOT but importune your lordship, with
thanks for your lordship's remembering my name
to my lord keeper; which being done in such an
article of time, could not but be exceedingly enrich-
ed, both in demonstration and effect; which I did
well discern by the manner of expressing thereof by
his lordship again to me. This accumulating of
your lordship's favours upon me hitherto, worketh
only this effect; that it raiseth my mind to aspire
to be found worthy of them, and likewise to merit
and serve you for them. But whether I shall be
able to pay my vows or no, I must leave that to God.
who hath them in deposito; whom also I most in-
stantly beseech to give you fruit of your actions be-
yond that your heart can propound:
major est corde:" even to the environing of his
benedictions I recommend your lordship.

Nam Deus




Ir were great simplicity in me to look for better, than that your Majesty should cast away my letter, as you have done me; were it not that it is possible your Majesty will think to find somewhat in it, whereupon your displeasure may take hold; and so indignation may obtain that of you which favour Ibid. § Ibid. || Ibid.

could not. Neither might I in reason presume to I offer unto your Majesty dead lines, myself being excluded as I am; were it not upon this only argument or subject, namely, to clear myself in point of duty. Duty, though my state lie buried in the sands, and my favours be cast upon the waters, and my honours be committed to the wind, yet standeth surely built upon the rock, and hath been, and ever shall be, unforced and unattempted. And therefore, since the world, out of error, and your Majesty, I fear, out of art, is pleased to put upon me, that I have so much as any election, or will in this my absence from attendance, I cannot but leave this protestation with your Majesty; that I am, and have been merely a patient, and take myself only to obey and execute your Majesty's will. And indeed, Madam, I had never thought it possible that your Majesty could have so disinterested yourself of me; nor that you had been so perfect in the art of forgetting; nor that after a quintessence of wormwood, your Majesty would have taken so large a draught of poppy, as to have passed so many * summers without all feeling of my sufferings. But the only comfort I have is this, that I know your Majesty taketh delight and contentment in executing this disgrace upon me. And since your Majesty can find no other use of me, I am glad yet I can serve for that. Thus making my most humble petition to your Majesty, that in justice, howsoever you may by strangeness untie, or by violence cut asunder all other knots, your Majesty would not touch me in that which is indissoluble: that is, point of duty; and that your Majesty will pardon this my unwarranted presumption of writing, being to such an end: I cease in all humbleness;

that go full all the parts together; and not these strange points of accord and discord. This I write not, I assure your honour, officiously; except it be according to Tully's Offices; that is, honestly and morally. For though, I thank God, I account, upon the proceeding, in the queen's service, or not proceeding, both ways; and therefore neither mean to fawn nor retire; yet I naturally desire good opinion with any person which for fortune or spirit is to be regarded: much more with a secretary of the queen's, and a cousin-german, and one with whom I have ever thought myself to have some sympathy of nature, though accidents have not suffered it to appear. Thus not doubting of your honourable interpretation and usage of that I have written, I commend you to the divine preservation.

From Gray's-Inn.


YOUR honour knoweth, my manner is, though it be not the wisest way, yet taking it for the honestest, to do as Alexander did by his physician, in drinking the medicine, and delivering the advertisement of suspicion: so I trust on, and yet do not smother what I hear. I do assure you, Sir, that by a wise friend of mine, and not factious towards your honour, I was told with asseveration, that your honour was bought by Mr. Coventry for two thousand angels: and that you wrought in a contrary spirit to my lord your father. And he said farther, that from your servants, from your lady, from some counsellors that have observed you in my business, he knew you

Your Majesty's poor, and never so unworthy wrought underhand with me: the truth of which servant,




I FORBEAR not to put in paper, as much as I thought to have spoken to your honour to-day, if I could have stayed; knowing that if your honour should make other use of it, than is due to good meaning, and that I am persuaded you will; yet to persons of judgment, and that know me other- | wise, it will rather appear, as it is, a precise honesty, and this same "6 suum cuique tribuere," than any hollowness to any. It is my luck still to be akin to such things as I neither like in nature, nor would willingly meet with in my course; but yet cannot avoid, without show of base timorousness, or else of unkind or suspicious strangeness

[Some hiatus in the copy.]

And I am of one spirit still. I ever liked the Galenists, that deal with good compositions; and not the Paracelsians, that deal with these fine separations and in music, I ever loved easy airs,

This shows this letter was wrote before the earl of Essex had been reconciled to the queen; and our author not having been called or advised with for some year and a half before the

tale I do not believe. You know the event will show, and God will right. But as I reject this report, though the strangeness of my case might make me credulous, so I admit a conceit, that the last messenger my lord and yourself used, dealt ill with your honours; and that word, speculation, which was in the queen's mouth, rebounded from him as a commendation: for I am not ignorant of those little Therefore, I pray, trust not him again in my matter. This was much to write; but I think my fortune will set me at liberty, who am weary of asserviling myself to every man's charity. Thus I, &c.




I UNDERSTAND of your pains to have visited me, for which I thank you. My matter is an endless question. I assure you I had said, " Requiesce, anima mea" but I now am otherwise put to my psalter; "Nolite confidere." I dare go no farther. Her Majesty had, by set speech, more than once assured me of her intention to call me to her ser

earl's going to Ireland, determines the date at the latest to
the beginning of 1598.
§ Ibid.

Rawley's Resuscitatio.



I KNOW you will pardon this my observance in writing to you, empty of matter, but out of the fulness of my love. I am sorry that as your time of absence is prolonged, above that was esteemed at your lordship's setting forth; so now, upon this last advertisement received from you, there groweth an opinion amongst better than the vulgar, that the difficulties also of your negotiation are increased. But because I know the gravity of your nature to be not to hope lightly, it maketh me to despair the less. For you are natus ad ardua: and the indisposition of the subject may honour the skill of the workman. Sure I am, judgment and diligence shall not want in your lordship's self: but this was not my purpose; being only to signify unto your lordship my continual and incessant love towards you, thirsting after your return, for many respects. So I commend you ever to the good preservation of the Divine Majesty.

vice; which I could not understand but of the place
I had been named to. And now, whether "invidus
homo hoc fecit;" or whether my matter must be an
appendix to my lord of Essex's suit; or whether her
Majesty, pretending to prove my ability, meaneth
but to take advantage of some errors, which like
enough, at one time or other, I may commit; or what
it is; but her Majesty is not ready to despatch it.
And what though the master of the rolls, and my
lord of Essex, and yourself, and others, think my
case without doubt, yet in the mean time I have a
hard condition to stand so, that whatsoever service
I do to her Majesty, it shall be thought but to be
"servitium viscatum," lime-twigs and fetches to place
myself; and so I shall have envy, not thanks. This
is a course to quench all good spirits, and to corrupt
every man's nature; which will, I fear, much hurt
her Majesty's service in the end. I have been like
a piece of stuff bespoken in the shop; and if her
Majesty will not take me, it may be the selling by
parcels will be more gainful. For to be, as I told
you, like a child following a bird, which, when he
is nearest flieth away, and lighteth a little before,
and then the child after it again, and so in infinitum;
I am weary of it, as also of wearying my good
friends: of whom, nevertheless, I hope in one course
or other gratefully to deserve. And so, not forget- Gray's Inn, 1598.
ting your business, I leave to trouble you with this idle
letter, being but "justa et moderata querimonia :"
for indeed I do confess, primus amor will not easily
be cast off. And thus again I commend me to you.



IT MAY PLEASE YOUR GOOD LORDSHIP, I AM very sorry her Majesty should take my motion to travel in offence. But surely under her Majesty's royal correction, it is such an offence as it should be an offence to the sun, when a man, to avoid the scorching heat thereof, flieth into the shade. And your lordship may easily think, that having now these twenty years, for so long it is, and more, since I went with Sir † Amyas Paulet into France, from her Majesty's royal hand, made her Majesty's service the scope of my life; I shall never find a greater grief than this, relinquere amorem primum. since principia actionum sunt tantum in nostra potestate, I hope her Majesty of her clemency, yea and justice, will pardon me, and not force me to pine here with melancholy. For though mine heart be good, yet mine eyes will be sore; so as I shall have no pleasure to look abroad: and if I should otherwise be affected, her Majesty in her wisdom will but think me an impudent man, that would face out a disgrace. Therefore, as I have ever found you my good lord and true friend, so I pray open the matter so to her Majesty, as she may discern the necessity of it without adding hard conceit to her rejection; of which, I am sure, the latter I never deserved. Thus, &c.

* Rawley's Resuscitatio.

↑ Tais letter was therefore wrote about the year 1598.
Kawley's Resuscitatio.
§ Ibid.

At your honour's commandment ever and particularly.


THE argument of my letters to your lordship rather increaseth than spendeth; it being only the desire I have to salute you; which by your absence is more augmented than abated. For me to write to your lordship occurrences, either of Scottish brags, or Irish plaints, or Spanish ruffling, or Low-Country states, were, besides that it is alienum quiddam from mine own humour, to forget to whom I write; save that you, that know true advertisements, sometimes desire and delight to hear common reports, as we that know but common reports desire to hear the truth. But to leave such as write to your fortunes, I write to yourself, in regard of my love to you, you being as near to me in heart's blood, as in blood of descent. || This day I had the contentment to lordship's countenance was not decayed, nor his see your father, upon occasion: and methought his cough vehement; but his voice was as faint all the while as at first. Thus wishing your lordship a happy and speedy return, I commend you to the Divine Majesty.



I DO write, because I had no time fully to express

This seems to be written 1598, the time of lord Burghley's last sickness. Rawley's Resuscitatio.

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