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that so you might better do me good in utroque genere. It may please your lordship, after having perused it, to commend it over to the care of Mr. Meautys for better custody.

At my parting last from your lordship, the grief I had to leave your lordship's presence, though but for a little time, was such, as that being accompanied with some small corporal indisposition, that I was in, made me forgetful to say that, which now for his Majesty's service I thought myself bound not to silence. I was credibly informed and assured, when the Spanish ambassador went away, that howsoever Ralegh and the prentices * should fall out to be proceeded withal, no more instances would be made hereafter on the part of Spain for justice to be done ever in these particulars; but that if slackness were used here, they would be laid up in the deck, and would serve for materials (this was the very word) of future and final discontentments. Now as the humour and design of some may carry them towards troubling of the waters; so I know your lordship's both nature and great place require an appeasing them at your hands. And I have not presumed to say this little out of any mind at all that I may have to meddle with matters so far above me, but out of a thought I had, that I was tied in duty to lay thus much under your lordship's eye; because I know and consider of whom I heard that speech, and with how great circumstances it was delivered.

I beseech Jesus to give continuance and increase to your lordship's happiness; and that, if it may stand with his will, myself may one day have the honour of casting some small mite into that rich treasury. So I humbly do your lordship reverence, and continue

The most obliged of your lordship's many faithful servants, TOBIE MATTHEW.

Nottingham, August 21, 1618.



I HAVE received some letters from you; and hearing from my lord Cavendish + how well he affects you, and taking notice also of your good abilities and services in his Majesty's affairs, and not forgetting the knowledge I had, when young, of your good father, I thought myself in some measure tied not to keep from you my good opinion of you,

* Who on the 12th of July, 1618, had insulted Gondomar, the Spanish ambassador, on account of a boy's being hurt by him as he was riding. [Camdeni Annales Regis Jacobi 1. p. 33.] They were proceeded against by commissioners at Guildhall on Wednesday the 12th of August following; seven being found guilty, and adjudged to six months' imprisonment, and to pay 500l. a piece. Two others were acquitted. MS. letter of Mr. Chamberlain to Sir Dudley Carleton, London, August 15, 1618.

William Cavendish, son and heir of William, created

and my desire to give you any fartherance in your fortunes and occasions, whereof you may take knowledge and liberty to use me for your good. Fare you well.

Your very loving friend,

FR. VERULAM,§ CANC. York-house, this 1st of Sept. 1618.


His Majesty is desirous to be satisfied of the fitness and conveniency of the gold and silver thread business; as also of the profit, that shall any way accrue unto him thereby. Wherefore his pleasure is, that you shall, with all convenient speed, call unto you the lord chief justice of the king's bench,¶ the attorney-general,** and the solicitor,†† and consider with them of every of the said particulars, and return them to his Majesty, that thereupon he may resolve what present course to take for the advancement of the execution thereof. And so I rest Your lordship's faithful servant, G. BUCKINGHAM. Theobald's, the 4th October, 1618.


I HAVE been desired, by some friends of mine, in the behalf of Sir Francis Englefyld, to recommend his cause so far unto your lordship, that a peremptory day being given by your lordship's order for the perfecting of his account, and for the assignment of the trust, your lordship would take such course therein, that the gentleman's estate may be redeemed from farther trouble, and secured from all danger, by engaging those, to whom the trust is now transferred by your lordship's order, to the performance of that, whereunto he was tied. And so not doubting but your lordship will do him what lawful favour you may herein, I rest

Your lordship's faithful friend and servant,

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May it please yOUR MOST EXCELLENT MAJESTY, ACCORDING to your commandment given unto us, we have upon divers meetings and conferences, considered what form and manner of proceeding against Sir Walter Ralegh might best stand with your Majesty's justice and honour, if you shall be pleased, that the law shall pass upon him.

And, first, we are of opinion, that Sir Walter Ralegh being attainted of high-treason, which is the highest and last work of law, he cannot be drawn in question judicially for any crime or offence since committed. And therefore we humbly present two forms of proceeding to your Majesty: the one, that together with the warrant to the lieutenant of the Tower, if your Majesty shall so please, for his execution, to publish a narrative in print of his late crimes and offences: which, albeit your Majesty is not bound to give an account of your actions in these to any but only to God alone, we humbly offer to your Majesty's consideration, as well in respect of the great effluxion of time since his attainder, and of his employment by your Majesty's commission, as for that his late crimes and offences are not yet publicly known. The other form, whereunto, if your Majesty so please, we rather incline, is, that where your Majesty is so renowned for your justice, it may have such a proceeding, as is nearest to legal proceeding; which is, that he be called before the whole body of your council of state, and your principal judges, in your council-chamber; and that some of the nobility and gentlemen of quality be admitted to be present to hear the whole proceeding, as in like cases hath been used. And after the assembly of all these, that some of your Majesty's counsellors of state, that are best acquainted with the case, should openly declare, that this form of proceeding against Sir Walter is holden, for that he is civilly dead. After this your Majesty's council learned to charge his acts of hostility, depredation, abuse as well of your Majesty's commission, as of your subjects under his charge, impostures, attempt of escape, and other his misdemeanors. But for that which concerns the French, wherein he was rather passive than active, and without which the charge is complete, we humbly refer to your Majesty's consideration, how far that shall be touched. After which charge so given, the examinations read, and Sir Walter heard, and some to be confronted against him, if need be, then he is to be withdrawn and sent back; for that no sentence is, or can be, given against him. And after he is gone, then the lords of the council and judges to give their advice to your Majesty, whether in respect of these subse

He was beheaded October 29, 1618, the day of the inauguration of the lord mayor of London.

Harl. MSS. Vol. 7006.

Walter, earl of Ormonde, grandfather of James the first duke of Ormonde. This earl, upon the death of Thomas, earl of Ormonde and Ossory, succeeding to those honours, should have inherited likewise the greatest part of the estate: but his

quent offences upon the whole matter, your Majesty, if you so please, may not with justice and honour give warrant for his execution upon his attainder. And of this whole proceeding we are of opinion, that a solemn act of council should be made, with a memorial of the whole presence. But before this be done, that your Majesty may be pleased to signify your gracious direction herein to your council of state; and that your council learned, before the calling of Sir Walter, should deliver the heads of the matter, together with the principal examinations touching the same, wherewith Sir Walter is to be charged, unto them, that they may be perfectly informed of the true state of the case, and give their advice accordingly. All which nevertheless we, in all humbleness, present and submit to your princely wisdom and judgment, and shall follow whatsoever it shall please your Majesty to direct us herein, with all dutiful readiness.

Your Majesty's most humble and faithful servants, &c.

York-house, this 18th of October, 1618.



WHEREAS there is a cause depending in the court of chancery between one Mr. Francis Foliambe and Francis Hornsby, the which already hath received a decree, and is now to have another hearing before yourself; I have thought fit to desire you to show so much favour therein, seeing it concerns the gentleman's whole estate, as to make a full arbitration and final end, either by taking the pains in ending it yourself, or preferring it to some other whom your lordship shall think fit: which I shall acknowledge as a courtesy from your lordship; and ever rest Your lordship's faithful friend and servant,

G. BUCKINGHAM. Hinchinbroke, the 22d of October, 1618.


I SEND the commission for making Lincoln's InnFields into walks for his Majesty's signature. It is without charge to his Majesty.

We have had my lord of Ormondet before us. We could not yet get him to answer directly, whether he would obey the king's award or no. After we had endured his importunity and impertinences, and yet let him down to this, that his Majesty's award right was contested by Sir Richard Preston lord Dingwell, supported by the favour of king James I. who made an award, which Walter, earl of Ormonde, conceiving to be unjust, refused to submit to, and was, by the king's order, committed to the Fleet, where he remained eight years before the death of that king; but in 1625 recovered his liberty.



was not only just and within his submission, but in his favour; we concluded in few words, that the award must be obeyed, and if he did refuse or impugn the execution of it in Ireland, he was to be punished by the justice of Ireland; if he did mur- I SEND your lordship the bill of the sheriff of mur or scandalize it here, or trouble his Majesty Hereford and Leicester, pricked and signed by his any more, he was to be punished in England. Then Majesty, who hath likewise commanded me to send he asked, whether he might be gone. For that, we unto your lordship these additions of instructions, told him, his Majesty's pleasure was to be known. sent unto him by the surveyor and receiver of the Sir Robert Mansell hath promised to bring his court of wards; wherein, because he knoweth not summer account this day seven-night. God pre- what to prescribe without understanding what observe and prosper you. jections can be made, his pleasure is, that your lordfaith-ship advise and consider of them, and send him your opinion of them, that he may then take such course therein, as shall be fit.

Your lordship's most obliged friend, and

ful servant, November 12, 1618.



MY HONOURable lord,

I SEND your lordship the commission signed by his Majesty, which he was very willing to despatch as a business very commendable and worthy to be taken in hand.

For the earl of Ormonde, his Majesty made no other answer, but that he hopeth that he is not so unmannerly, as to go away without taking leave of his Majesty.

His Majesty commanded me to give you thanks for your care of his service: and so I rest

Your lordship's faithful servant,

Newmarket, 22d of November.
Indorsed, 1618.


We have put the Declaration § touching Ralegh to the press with his Majesty's additions, which were very material, and fit to proceed from his Ma

For Sir Robert Mansell's account, his Majesty saith he is very slow, especially being but a sum-jesty. mary account, and that he promised to bring it in before and therefore would have him tied to the day he hath now set, without any farther delay.

This last his Majesty commanded me to put in after I had written and signed my letter.

Your lordship's faithful friend and servant,
Royston, the 13th of November, 1618.



HAVING formerly moved your lordship in the business of this bearer, Mr. Wyche, of whom, as I understand, your lordship hath had a special care to do him favour, according to the equity of his cause; now seeing that the cause is shortly to be heard, I have thought fit to continue my recommendation of the business unto you, desiring your lordship to show what favour you lawfully may unto Mr. Wyche, according as the justness of the cause shall require: which I will acknowledge as a courtesy from your lordship, and ever rest

Your lordship's faithful friend and servant,
Newmarket, the 18th of November, 1618.

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For the prisoners, we have taken an account, given a charge, and put some particulars in examination for punishment and example.

For the pursuivants, we staid a good while for Sir Edward Coke's health; but he being not yet come abroad, we have entered into it; and we find faults, and mean to select cases for example: but in this swarm of priests and recusants we are careful not to discourage in general. But the punishment of some, that are notoriously corrupt, concern not the good, and will keep in awe those that are but indifferent.

The balance of the king's estate is in hand, whereof I have great care, but no great help.

The sub-committees for the several branches of treasure are well chosen and charged.

This matter of the king's estate for means is like a quarry, which digs and works hard; but then, when I consider it buildeth, I think no pains too much; and after term it shall be my chief care.

For the mint, by my next I will give account, for our day is Wednesday.

God ever preserve and prosper you.
Your lordship's

November 22, 1618.



Of council-business.

Ralegh, Knight, as well in his Voyage, as in and since his return," &c. printed at London 1618, in quarto.



I HAVING understood by Dr. Steward, that your lordship hath made a decree against him in the chancery, which he thinks very hard for him to perform although I know it is unusual to your lordship to make any alterations, when things are so far past; yet in regard I owe him a good turn, which I know not how to perform but this way, desire your lordship, if there be any place left for mitigation, your lordship would show him what favour you may, for my sake, in his desires, which I shall be ready to acknowledge as a great courtesy done unto myself; and will ever rest


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MY HONOURable lord,

I HAVE written a letter unto your lordship, which will be delivered unto you in behalf of Dr. Steward; and besides, have thought fit to use all freedom with you in that, as in other things; and therefore have thought fit to tell you, that he being a man of very good reputation, and a stout man, that will not yield to any thing, wherein he conceiveth any hard course against him, I should be sorry he should make any complaint against you. And therefore, if you can advise of any course, how you may be eased of that burden, and freed from his complaint, without show of any fear of him, or any thing he can say, I will be ready to join with you for the accomplishment thereof: And so desiring you to excuse the long stay of your man, I rest

Your lordship's faithful friend and servant, G. BUCKINGHAM. From Newmarket, 3d of December, 1618.



YESTERNIGHT we despatched the lord Ridgeway's account. Good service is done. Seven or eight thousand pounds are coming to the king, and a good precedent set for accounts.

counsel his Majesty to grant forth a commission of this nature, so to raise money for himself, being a flower of the crown: and Hall may be rewarded out of it; and it would be to principal persons, that it may be carried with election and discretion, whom to admit to denization, and whom not. God ever bless and prosper you.

There came to the seal about a fortnight since a strange book passed by Mr. Attorney to one Mr. Hall; and it is to make subjects, for so is denization, and this to go to a private use, till some thousand pounds be made of it. The number one hundred denizens. And whereas all books of that nature had an exception of merchants, which importeth the king not much in his customs only, for that is provided for in the book, but many other ways, this takes in merchants and all. I acquainted the commissioners with it, and by one consent it is stayed. But let me Harl. MSS. Vol. 7006. † Ibid. P


Your lordship's most faithful and obliged friend and servant,

December 8, 1618. FR. VERULAM, CANC.


I THANK your lordship for the favour, which, I understand, Sir Francis Englefyld hath received from your lordship upon my last letter, whereunto I desire your lordship to add this one favour more, which is the same that I understand your lordship granted him at Christmas last, to give him liberty, for the space of a fortnight, to follow his business in his own person; whereby he may bring it to the more speedy end, putting in security, according to the ordinary course, to render himself prisoner again, as soon as that time is expired: which is all that I desire for him, and in which I will acknowledge your lordship's favour towards him; and ever rest

Your lordship's faithful friend and servant, G. BUCKINGHAM. Newmarket, the 10th of Decemb. 1618.


I SEND you herewith the copy of a letter, which we, the commissioners for Ormonde's cause, have written to the deputy of Ireland, according to his Majesty's pleasure signified by Sir Francis Blundell; which I humbly desire his Majesty would peruse, that if it do not attain his meaning, as we conveyed it, we may second it with a new letter.

We have appointed Monday morning for these mint businesses, referred by his Majesty to certain commissioners, and we will carry it sine strepitu.

The patent touching Guinea and Bynny for the trade of gold, staid first by myself, and after by his Majesty's commandment, we have now settled by consent of all parties.

Mr. Attorney, by my direction, hath made, upon his information exhibited into the star-chamber, a thundering motion against the transportation of gold by the Dutch; which all the town is glad of; and I have granted divers writs of ne exeat regnum, according to his Majesty's warrant.

Sir Edward Coke keeps in still, and we have miss of him; but I supply it as I may by my farther diligence. God ever bless you and keep you.

Your lordship's most faithful and bounden friend
and servant,

December 11, 1618. FR. VERULAM, CANC.
§ Ibid.


I forget not your doctor's matter. I shall speak with him to-day, having received your lordship's letter; and what is possible, shall be done. I pray pardon my scribbling in haste.


I HAVE acquainted his Majesty with your letters, who is very well pleased with your care of his service, in making stay of the grant of denizens upon the reason you allege, whereof his Majesty will speak farther with you at his return.

The letter, which you sent me about my lord of Ormonde's son, is not according to his Majesty's meaning; but I would have you frame another to my lord deputy to this purpose: "That his Majesty having seen a letter of his to Sir Francis Blundell, advertising, that the earl of Ormonde's son, and some other of his kindred, did victual and fortify their houses; his Majesty hath thereupon commanded you to write unto him, that if the ground of his information be true, which he may best know, that then he send for the said earl's son, and the principal of his kindred, to appear before him; and if they appear, and give him satisfaction, it is well; but if they refuse to appear, or give him not satisfaction though they appear, that then he assemble what forces he can, be they never so few, and go against them, that he may crush the rebellion in the egg."

I have remembered his Majesty, as I promised your lordship, about the naming you for a commissioner to treat with the Hollanders: But besides that you have so many businesses, both of the starchamber, and others in the term-time, when this must be attended as well as in the vacation, whereby this would be either too great a toil to you, or a hinderance to his Majesty's service; he thinketh it could not stand with the honour of your place to be balanced with those that are sent from the state, so far unequal to his Majesty, and being themselves none of the greatest of the state. Therefore his Majesty holdeth it not fit or worthy of you to put you into such an employment, in which none of your predecessors, or any of the chief counsellors, have been ever used in this kind, but only in a treaty of marriage or conclusion of a peace; as when the constable of Castile was here, when the commissioners on both sides had their authority under the great seal of either kingdom, with direct relation to their sovereigns, far differing from this commission, which is now given to these men, and whereunto his Majesty is to frame the course of his. As for the part which concerneth Scotland, the choice hath not been made of the chancellor or archbishop of St. Andrew's, but of men nearer the rank of those, that come hither to treat. As yet his Majesty delayeth to give any commission at all, because he would first be informed from the lords, both of the points and form of their commission, which his Majesty hitherto understandeth to be, with authority to over-rule and *Steward's. See above, p. 209.

direct their merchants in what they shall think fit; which if it be so, then his Majesty holdeth it fit, for his part, to appoint the whole body of the council with like power over his merchants. As for me, I shall be ever ready upon any occasion to show myself

Your lordship's faithful friend and servant, G. BUCKINGHAM. Newmarket, the 14th of December, 1618.


I SHALL not be wanting in any thing, that may express my good affection and wishes towards your ladyship, being so near unto me, and the daughter of a father, to whom I was in the passages of my fortune much obliged. So with my loving commendations, in the midst of business, I rest

Your affectionate kinsman and assured friend, FR. VERULAM, CANC. York-house, this 25th of January, 1618.


LEST my often writing may make your lordship conceive, that this letter hath been drawn from you by importunity, I have thought fit for preventing of any such conceit, to let your lordship know, that Sir John Wentworth, whose business I now recommend, is a gentleman, whom I esteem in more than an ordinary degree. And therefore I desire your lordship to show him what favour you can for my sake in his suit, which his Majesty hath referred to your lordship: which I will acknowledge as a courtesy unto me, and rest

Your lordship's faithful friend and servant,

Newmarket, January 26th, 1618.


I BEING desired by a special friend of mine to recommend unto your lordship's favour the case of this petitioner, have thought fit to desire you, for my sake, to show him all the favour you may in this his desire, as you shall find it in reason to deserve; which I shall take as a courtesy from your lordship, and ever rest

Your lordship's faithful friend and servant, G. BUCKINGHAM. I thank your lordship for your favour to Sir John Wentworth, in the despatch of his business. Newmarket, March 15, 1618.

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