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MY HONOURAble lord,

His Majesty having made a reference of business to your lordship, concerning Sir Robert Douglas and Mr. David Ramsay, two of his highness's servants, whom he loveth, and whom I wish very well unto I have thought fit to desire you to show them all the favour your lordship may therein: which I will acknowledge, and ever rest

Your lordship's faithful friend and servant, G. BUCKINGHAM, Farnham, the last of August, 1620. The reference comes in the name of my brother Christopher, because they thought it would succeed the better: but the prince wisheth well to it.


Touching the business of wills.


AMONGST the counsels, which, since the time I had the honour to be first of your learned, and after of your privy council, I have given your Majesty faithfully, according to my small ability: I do take comfort in none more, than that I was the first, that advised you to come in person into the star-cham-ber; knowing very well, that those virtues of your Majesty, which I saw near hand, would out of that throne, both, as out of a sphere, illustrate your own honour, and, as out of a fountain, water and refresh your whole land. And because your Majesty, in that you have already done, hath so well effected that, which I foresaw and desired, even beyond my expectation; it is no marvel, if I resort still to the branches of that counsel, that hath borne so good fruit.

The star-chamber, in the institution thereof, hath two uses; the one as a supreme court of judicature; the other as an open council. In the first kind, your Majesty hath sat there now twice; the first time, in a cause of force, concerning the duels; the second time, in a cause of fraud, concerning the forgeries and conspiracies against the lady of Exeter; which two natures of crimes, force and fraud, are the proper objects of that court.

In the second kind, your Majesty came the first time of all, when you did set in frame and fabric the several jurisdictions of your courts. There wants a fourth part of the square to make all complete, which is, if your Majesty will be pleased to publish certain commonwealth commissions; which, as your Majesty hath well begun to do in some things, and to speak of in some others; so, if your Majesty will be pleased to make a solemn declaration of them in that place, this will follow :

First, that your Majesty shall do yourself an

Harl. MSS. Vol. 7006.

This letter appears to have been written after the proceedings against Sir Thomas Lake, and his lady and daughter,

infinite honour, and win the hearts of your people to acknowledge you, as well the most politic king, as the most just.

Secondly, it will oblige your commissioners to a more strict account, when they shall be engaged by such a public charge and commandment. And, thirdly, it will invite and direct any man, that finds himself to know any thing concerning those commissions, to bring in their informations. So as I am persuaded it will eternize your name and merit, and that king James's commissions will be spoken of, and put in ure, as long as Britain lasts; at the least, in the reign of all good kings.

For the particulars, besides the two commissions of the navy, and the buildings about London, wherein your Majesty may consider, whether you will have any thing altered or supplied, I wish these following to be added.

Commission for advancing the clothing of England, as well the old drapery as the new, and all the incidents thereunto.

Commission for staying treasure within the realm, and the reiglement of moneys.

Commission for the provision of the realm with corn and grain, and the government of the exportation and importation thereof; and directing of public granaries, if cause be.

Commission for introducing and nourishing manufactures within the realm, for the setting people a-work, and the considering of all grants and privileges of that nature.

Commission to prevent the depopulation of towns and houses of husbandry, and for nuisances and highways.

Commission for the recovery of drowned lands. Commission for the suppression of the grievances of informers.

Commission for the better proceedings in the plantations of Ireland.

Commission for the provision of the realm with all kind of warlike defence, ordnance, powder, munition, and armour.

Of these you may take and leave, as it shall please you: and I wish the articles concerning every one of them, first allowed by your council, to be read openly, and the commissioners' names.

For the good, that comes of particular and select committees and commissions, I need not commonplace, for your Majesty hath found the good of them but nothing to that that will be, when such things are published; because it will vindicate them from neglect, and make many good spirits, that we little think of, co-operate in them.

I know very well, that the world, that commonly is apt to think, that the care of the commonwealth is but a pretext in matters of state, will perhaps conceive, that this is but a preparative to a parliament. But let not that hinder your Majesty's magnanimity, in opere operato, that is so good; and besides, that opinion, for many respects, will do no hurt to your affairs.

in the star-chamber, in January 1619-20, and before the resolution of calling the parliament which met January 30, 1620-1.



By his Majesty's directions Sir Francis Blundell will deliver you a petition of Sir Francis Annesley, his Majesty's secretary of Ireland, with his Majesty's pleasure thereupon. To the gentleman I wish very well, and do therefore recommend him and his cause to your lordship's good favour; and your respect of him, in his absence, I will thankfully acknowledge. So I take my leave.

Your lordship's very loving friend,

Theobald's, the 2d of Oct. 1620.



Ir being a thing to speak or write, specially to a king, in public, another in private, although I have dedicated a work,† or rather a portion of a work, which, at last, I have overcome, to your Majesty by a public epistle, where I speak to you in the hearing of others; yet I thought fit also humbly to seek access for the same, not so much to your person as to your judgment, by these private lines.

The work, in what colours soever it may be set forth, is no more but a new logic, teaching to invent and judge by induction, as finding syllogism incompetent for sciences of nature; and thereby to make philosophy and sciences both more true and more active.

This tending to enlarge the bounds of reason, and to endow man's estate with new value, was no improper oblation to your Majesty, who, of men, is the greatest master of reason, and author of beneficence.

There be two of your council, and one other bishopt of this land, that know I have been about some such work near thirty years; § so as I made no haste. And the reason why I have published it now, specially being unperfect, is, to speak plainly, because I number my days, and would have it saved. There is another reason of my so doing, which is to try whether I can get help in one intended part of

Harl. MSS. Vol. 7006.

+ Novum Organum. In the library of the late Thomas, earl of Leicester, the descendant of Sir Edward Coke, at Holkham in Norfolk, is a copy of this work, entitled Instauratio Magna, printed by John Bill, in 1620, presented to Sir Edward, who at the top of the title-page has written, Edw. C. ex dono auctoris.

"Auctori Consilium.

Instaurare paras veterum documenta sophorum :
Instaura Leges Justitiamq; prius."

And over the device of the ship passing between Hercules's
Pillars, Sir Edward has written the two following verses:
It deserveth not to be read in Schooles,
But to be freighted in the Ship of Fools."
Alluding to a famous book of Sebastian Brand, born at Stras-
burgh, about 1460, written in Latin and High Dutch verse, and
translated into English in 1508, by Alexander Barklay, and
printed at London the year following, by Richard Pynson,
printer to Henry VII. and Henry VIII. in folio, with the fol-

this work, namely, the compiling of a natural and experimental history, which must be the main foundation of a true and active philosophy.

This work is but a new body of clay, whereinto your Majesty, by your countenance and protection, may breathe life. And, to tell your Majesty, truly what I think, I account your favour may be to this work as much as a hundred years time: for I am persuaded the work will gain upon men's minds in ages, but your gracing it may make it take hold more swiftly; which I would be very glad of, it being a work meant not for praise or glory, but for practice, and the good of men. One thing, I confess, I am ambitious of, with hope, which is, that after these beginnings, and the wheel once set on going, men shall seek more truth out of christian pens, than hitherto they have done out of heathen. I say with hope; because I hear my former book of the "Advancement of Learning," is well tasted in the universities here, and the English colleges abroad: and this is the same argument sunk deeper.

And so I ever humbly rest in prayers, and all other duties,

Your Majesty's most bounden and devoted servant, FR. VERULAM, CANC. York-house, this 12th of Oct. 1620.



THERE is a business in your lordship's hands, with which Sir Robert Lloyd did acquaint your lordship; whereof the prince hath demanded of me what account is given. And because I cannot inform his highness of any proceeding therein, I desire your lordship to use all expedition that may be, in making your answer to me, that I may give his highness some satisfaction, who is very desirous thereof. And so I rest

Your lordship's faithful friend and servant,
Royston, 14th of October, 1620.


Touching the register of wills.

lowing title: "The Shyp of Folys of the world: Translated in the Coll. of Saynt Mary Otery, in the counte of Devonshyre, out of Latin, Frenche, and Doche, into Englesshe tongue, by Alex. Barklay, preste and chaplen in the said College, M,CCCCC,VIII." It was dedicated by the translator to Thomas Cornish, bishop of Tine, and suffragan bishop of Wells, and adorned with great variety of wooden cuts. Dr. Lancelot Andrews, bishop of Winchester.

Mr. Chamberlain, in a letter to Sir Dudley Carleton, ambassador at Holland, dated at London, October 28, 1620, mentions, that Mr. Henry Cuffe, who had been secretary to Robert, earl of Essex, and executed for being concerned in his treasons, having long since perused this work, gave this censure, that a fool could not have written such a work, and a wise man would not. And, in another letter, dated Feb. 3, 1620-1, Mr. Chamberlain takes notice, that the king could not forbear sometimes, in reading that book, to say, that it was like the peace of God, that passeth all understanding. Harl. MSS. Vol. 7000.



I DESIRE your lordship to continue your favour to Sir Thomas Gerrard, in the business concerning him, wherein I signified his Majesty's pleasure to your lordship. And one favour more I am to entreat of your lordship in his behalf, that you will be pleased to speak to one of the assistants of the chancellor of the duchy, in whose court he hath a cause depending, as he will more fully inform your lordship himself, to see that he may have a fair proceeding, according to justice: for which I will

ever rest

Your lordship's faithful friend and servant,
Royston, 15th of October, 1620.



This work, which is for the bettering of men's bread and wine, which are the characters of temporal blessings and sacraments of eternal, I hope, by God's holy providence, will be ripened by Cæsar's star.

Your Majesty shall not only do to myself a singular favour, but to your business a material help, if you will be graciously pleased to open yourself to me in those things wherein you may be unsatisfied. For though this work, as by position and principle, doth disclaim to be tried by any thing but by experience, and the results of experience in a true way; yet the sharpness and profoundness of your Majesty's judgment ought to be an exception to this general rule; and your questions, observations, and admonishments, may do infinite good.

This comfortable beginning makes me hope farther, that your Majesty will be aiding to me, in setting men on work for the collecting of a natural and experimental history; which is basis totius negotii, a thing which I assure myself will be, from time to time, an excellent recreation unto you; I say, to YOUR lordship desiring to understand what cometh that admirable spirit of yours, that delighteth in of the business, after which the prince hearkeneth, | light: and I hope well, that even in your times I was in doubt which of the two businesses you many noble inventions may be discovered for man's meant; that of the Duchy or that of the Preroga- | use. For who can tell, now this mine of truth is tive-Court for wills; for both are recommended from opened, how the veins go; and what lieth higher, the prince. But be it one, or be it the other, no and what lieth lower? But let me trouble your time hath been lost in either; for Mr. Secretary Majesty no farther at this time. God ever preserve Naunton and I have entered into both. For the and prosper your Majesty. Duchy, we have already stayed all proceeding to [October 19, 1620.] the king's disservice for those manors, which are not already passed under seal. For that which is passed, we have heard the attorney † with none or little satisfaction hitherto. The chancellor ‡ is not yet come, though sent for. For the other, we have heard Sir John Bennet, § and given him leave to acquaint my lord of Canterbury; and have required the solicitor || to come well prepared for the king. So that in neither we can certify yet; and to trouble your lordship, while business is but in passage, were time lost. I ever rest

Your lordship's most obliged friend and faithful servant, October 16, 1620.


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I SEND now only to give his Majesty thanks for the singular comfort which I received by his Majesty's letter of his own hand, touching my book. And I must also give your lordship of my best thanks for your letter so kindly and affectionately written.

I did even now receive your lordship's letter touching the proclamation, and do approve his Majesty's judgment and foresight about mine own. Neither would I have thought of inserting matter of state for the vulgar, but that now-a-days there is no vulgar, but all statesmen. But, as his Majesty doth excellently consider, the time of it is not yet proper. I ever rest

Your lordship's most obliged friend and faithful servant,

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Notes of a Speech of the LORD CHANCELLOR in the Star-Chamber, in the cause of SIR HENRY YELVERTON, Attorney-General.*

SORRY for the person, being a gentleman that I lived with in Gray's-Inn; served with him when I was attorney; joined with him in many services, and one, that ever gave me more attributes in public than I deserved; and, besides, a man of very good parts, which with me is friendship at first sight; much more joined with so ancient an acquaintance. But, as a judge, I hold the offence very great, and that without pressing measure; upon which I will only make a few observations, and so leave it.

1. First I observe the danger and consequence of the offence: for if it be suffered, that the learned council shall practise the art of multiplication upon their warrants, the crown will be destroyed in small time. The great seal, the privy seal, signet, are solemn things; but they follow the king's hand. It is the bill drawn by the learned council and the docquet, that leads the king's hand.


2. Next I note the nature of the defence. first, that it was error in judgment: for this surely, if the offence were small, though clear or great, but doubtful, I should hardly sentence it. For it is hard to draw a straight line by steadiness of hand; but it could not be the swerving of the hand. And herein I note the wisdom of the law of England, which termeth the highest contempts and excesses of authority, misprisions; which if you take the sound and derivation of the words, is but mistaken: but if you take the use and acceptation of the word, it is high and heinous contempts and usurpations of authority; whereof the reason I take to be, and the name excellently imposed; for that main mistaking, it is ever joined with contempt; for he, that reveres, will not easily mistake; but he, that slights, and thinks more of the greatness of his place than of the duty of his place, will soon commit misprisions.


Star-chamber, October 24, 1620. Attorney's cause.

till the king's pleasure is known. This was against my opinion then declared plain enough; but put to votes, and ruled by the major part, though some concurred with me.

I do not like of this course, in respect that it puts the king in a strait; for either the note of severity must rest upon his Majesty, if he go on; or the thanks of clemency is in some part taken away, if his Majesty go not on.

I have cor unum et via una; and therefore did my part as a judge and the king's chancellor. What is farther to be done, I will advise the king faithfully, when I see his Majesty and your lordship. But before I give advice, I must ask a question first. God ever preserve and prosper you.

Your lordship's most obliged friend and faith-
ful servant,

October 28, 1620.



YESTERNIGHT we made an end of Sir Henry Yelverton's cause. I have almost killed myself with sitting almost eight hours. But I was resolved to sit it through. He is sentenced to imprisonment in the Tower during the king's pleasure. The fine of 4000l. and discharge of his place, by way of opinion of the court, referring it to the king's pleasure. How I stirred the court, I leave it to others to speak; but things passed to his Majesty's great honour. I would not for any thing but he had made his defence; for many chief points of the charge were deeper printed by the defence. But yet I like it not in him; the less because he retained Holt, who is ever retained but to play the fool. God ever prosper you.

Your lordship's most obliged friend and faithful servant,

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It may be, your lordship will expect to hear from me what passed yesterday in the star-chamber, touching Yelverton's cause, though we desired secretary Calvert to acquaint his Majesty therewith.

To make short, at the motion of the attorney, in person at the bar, and at the motion of my lord steward in court, the day of proceeding is deferred

He was prosecuted in the star-chamber, for having passed certain clauses in a charter, lately granted to the city of London, not agreeable to his Majesty's warrant, and derogatory to his honour. But the chief reason of the severity against him was thought to be the marquis of Buckingham's resentment against him, for having opposed, according to the duty of his office, some oppressive, if not illegal, patents, which the projectors of those times were busy in preparing.



IN performance of your royal pleasure, signified by Sir John Suckling,§ we have at several times considered of the petition of Mr. Christopher Villiers, and have heard, as well the registers and ministers of the prerogative-court of Canterbury, and their council, as also the council of the lord archbishop of Canterbury. And setting aside such other points, as are desired by the petition, we do The duke of Lenox.

From the collections of the late Robert Stephens, Esq. He was afterwards comptroller of the household to king Charles I. and father of the poet of the same name.

Youngest brother to the marquis of Buckingham. He was created, April 23, 1623, baron of Daventry and earl of Anglesey. He died September 24, 1624.

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think, that your Majesty may by law, and without | patents, which we have represented to his Majesty, inconvenience, appoint an officer, that shall have the as like to be stirred in by the lower house of parengrossing of the transcripts of all wills to be sealed liament, we have set down three, which may conwith the seal of either of the prerogative-courts, cern some of your lordship's special friends, which which shall be proved in communi forma; and like- I account as mine own friends; and so showed wise of all inventories, to be exhibited in the same myself, when they were in suit. The one, that to courts. Sir Giles Mompesson, touching the inns; the second to Mr. Christopher Villiers and Mr. Maule, touching the recognizances for ale-houses; the third, to Mr. Lieutenant of the Tower, touching the cask. These in duty could not be omitted, for that specially the two first of them are more rumoured, both by the vulgar and by the gentlemen, yea, and by the judges themselves, than any other patents at this day. Therefore I thought it appertained to the singular love and affection, which I bear you upon so many obligations, to wish and advise, that your lordship, whom God hath made in all things so fit to be beloved, would put off the envy of these things, which I think in themselves bear no great fruit ; and rather take the thanks for ceasing them, than the note for maintaining them. But howsoever let me know your mind, and your lordship shall find I will go your way.

We see it necessary, that all wills, which are not judicially controverted, be engrossed before the probate. Yet as the law now stands, no officer of those courts can lawfully take any fee or reward for engrossing the said wills and inventories, the statute of the 21st of king Henry VIIIth restraining them. Wherefore we hold it much more convenient, that it should be done by a lawful officer, to be appointed by your Majesty, than in a cause not warrantable by law. Yet our humble opinion and advice is, that good consideration be had in passing this book, as well touching a moderate proportion of fees to be allowed for the pains and travel of the officer, as for the expedition of the suitor, in such sort that, the subject may find himself in better case than he is now, and not in worse.

But however we conceive this may be convenient in the two courts of prerogative, where there is much business, yet in the ordinary course of the bishops diocesans, we hold the same will be inconvenient, in regard of the small employment.

Your Majesty's most faithful and obedient

November 15, 1620.



AFTER my very hearty commendations, I have
acquainted his Majesty with your letter, who com-
manded me to tell you, that he had been thinking
upon the same point, whereof you write, three or
four days ago, being so far from making any ques-
tion of it, that he every day expected when a writ
should come down. For at the creation of prince
Henry, the lords of the council and judges assured
his Majesty of as much, as the precedents, mention-
ed in your letter, speak of. And so I rest

Your lordship's very loving friend at command,
Newmarket, the 24th of Novemb. 1620.

Showing his Majesty is satisfied with precedents,
touching the prince's summons to parliament.

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I cannot express, how much comfort I take in the choice his Majesty hath made of my lord chief justice to be lord treasurer; not for his sake, nor for my sake, but for the king's sake; hoping, that now a number of counsels, which I have given for the establishment of his Majesty's estate, and have lain dead and deeper than this snow, may now spring up and bear fruit; the rather, for that I persuade myself, he and I shall run one way. And yet I know well, that in this doubling world cor unum et via una is rare in one man, but more rare between two. And therefore, if it please his Majesty, according to his prudent custom in such cases, to cast out, now at his coming down, some words, which may the better knit us in conjunction to do him service, I suppose it will be to no idle purpose.


And as an old truant in the commission of the treasury, let me put his Majesty in remembrance of three things now upon his entrance, which he is presently to go in hand with the first, to make Ireland to bear the charge thereof; the second, to bring all accounts to one purse in the exchequer; the third, by all possible means to endeavour the taking off of the anticipations. There be a thousand things more; but these being his Majesty's last commands to the commissioners of the treasury, with such as in his Majesty's princely judgment shall occur, will do well to season his place.

Your lordship's most obliged friend and faithful servant,

November 29, 1620.


As soon as I had written this letter, I received your lordship's letter, touching my lord chief justice, which redoubled my comfort, to see how his Majesty's thoughts and mine, his poor servant's, and your lordship's meet.

+ Harl. MSS. Vol. 7000.

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