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19 (XVIIII.) on p. 51 is the one referred to; but this requires further investigation. The entry "cottidiana" occurs frequently, sometimes three or four times in succession, in the tables of lessons prefixed to the other gospels.

All this preliminary matter occurs in the Lindisfarne MS. only, and has been printed by Bouterwek in his "Screadunga" or Fragments, printed at Elberfeld in quarto, 1858; pp. 1—41.

The manner in which the various texts and the results of collation of them with other MSS. are arranged has been already explained.

In the method of printing the texts, &c., I have been entirely guided by the one sole object of presenting to the reader, as nearly as possible, the exact peculiarities of the MSS. The capital letters, accents, and points are closely followed; and, in order to indicate the contractions clearly, I have adopted the very convenient method employed in works issued by the Early English Text Society, of representing their equivalents by the use of italic letters. Thus, in i. 3, col. 1, the word pam is written pa in the Corpus MS., and in the gloss to i. 7 in the Lindisfarne MS. the word æfter is written æft," with an an upward curl attached to the t. It will be convenient to mention here a few peculiarities of the MSS.


Left-hand pages, first column. The contractions used in the Corpus MS. are very few, the commonest being a stroke over a vowel to denote m, as in þam, halgum, him, written þā, halgū, hī. We also find þon for ponne. The contractions for and, for þæt, and cw. for cwad have been left as in the MSS. Similar contractions occur in MSS. A., B., and C., quoted in the Various Readings. The scribe used three kinds of points or stops, but two of them are altogether equivalent and answer nearly to the modern comma. He expresses this short pause either by a single dot, or by a stop resembling an inverted semicolon (), but with a curl to the left instead of the right. These I here denote by an ordinary full stop. His longer pause is denoted by a kind of semicolon, as here printed, and the reader will soon observe that it is almost invariably followed by a capital letter. Another most curious result (one only to be discovered when a MS. is exactly followed) is the ornamental value which the scribe of the MS. assigns to the initials p and D. As these were, in his eyes, precisely equivalent, he adorns the MS. by writing them boldly, and, in many passages, alternately. Thus, in vi. 16, p. 44, we have initial Ɖ; this is followed by p in verse 18, Ɖ in verse 19, p in verse 21, and so nately at the beginnings of verses 24, 26, 29, 37, and 38. So again at the beginnings of verses 24, 27, 28, 29, 33 in chapter vii; verses 5, 6, 12, in chapter

1 Bouterwek's edition is very correct, but has a few slight errors. In 1. 4, p. 1, he has voce for uoce; in the next line, the MS. has praedistinatum, not praedistinctum, and

a few more such slips might be pointed out.

on alter

2 This contraction sometimes forms part of a word, as "Iswarode" for "andswarode."

viii; verses 1, 2, 4, 5 in chapter ix; verses 27, 29, 30, 32, 33 in ch. ix; vv. 2, 3, 4, 9, 11, 14, 16, 18, 20, 23, 24, 28, 29, 36, 38, 39 in ch. x; &c. Of course there are numerous examples also of the contrary; but, in the last case at least, the intention is obvious, and is far more striking in the MS. than in the print. The same alternation is sometimes found in the large capitals, which were painted in afterwards; see x. 46 (p. 84), xi. 1 (p. 86), xi. 15 (p. 88), xi. 27 (p. 90); and especially note xiii. 1 and 3 (p. 102). The supposed necessity of alternation was regulated to some extent by the position of the letters on the page. That our ancestors really looked upon such an alternation as an embellishment is proved beyond a doubt by the colours of the painted letters in the MSS. Thus, in the Cambridge MS., the large capitals are painted alternately blue, red, green, red, blue, red, green, red, &c., throughout the whole of the gospels. In the Hatton MS., blue and red letters alternate; in the Bodley MS., they are red and green. When not employing capitals, the scribe has a decided preference for p at the beginning, and at the end of a word, though we also find instances of a contrary usage.

The accents in the Corpus MS. are used sparingly, but, in general, correctly. The following are the foreign words in which an accent is used, viz:-abiathár, bethanía, corbán, decapóleos, genesár, herode (dat.), hierasenorum, iáirus, iordané, (dat.), isaaces, osanná, sidóne, sidónis, tíra, tírum. Of Anglo-Saxon words, we find the following cases of substantives: ádlum (dat. pl.), árfata, beláf, bocerum, bógas, dóm, dúne, éár, fýr, gást, gerýnu, híwum, hláf, hlísa, hróf, hús, láfe, lár, láreow, líc, mán (wickedness), móde, mýsan, nón-tide (xv. 34), rice, rices, sæ, sæd, sædere, scýp, sícol, stán, stræte, tid, tíma, tún, þécene, þórnas, wa, westene, wíc, wif, win, wingeard, wite, ýst; also the dative bec, and the plurals scép, swýn. Also the adjectives:-án, éce, god, geunrét, hál, láman, máre, mánfullan, nán, nîwne, níwan, stúntan, þæslic, unclæne, unrốt, weste, wode; the singular word écé in ix. 45 is written for éce. The numerals :-fif, týne.

The pronouns: mé, mín, wế, ús, þú, þín, þé, gế, hế, hí, sẽ (xii. 21). The parts of verbs:-adrífð, arís, arás, árn, æt, æton, bígdon, cóm, cómon, cwæde, dó (donne, ge-dón, dép), eôde, fæmende, foron, on-fő, ge-fón, gá, gán (agán, gegán, in-agán), geomrode, hết, a-hóf, hóh, a-hoh, æt-hríne, æt-hrán, on-hrán, let, for-lét, for-lætan, læran, læsgende, næron, námon, nát, sædon, asende, síwap, be-smîtan, æt-sóc, stígan, ford-stóp, ge-swác, swór, sý, sýn (iv. 12), úrnon, ge-wát, wære, ýtt. The adverbs:-agén, ær, fürþon, gýt, hwí, hwón, gelómlice, má, ná, nú, þá (iii. 4; generally þa), úp, út, úte. The prepositions :—agén, ágến (xiii. 8), ongén (xiii. 8). The prefixes:-á- in á-færede (xvi. 8), á-hangen (xv. 15), ásceacað, áwriten; út- in út-gán, út-gangende; and (once only) ún- in ûn-þwogenum (vii. 2). The accents are, however, very frequently omitted, as the readers were supposed to be able to supply the pronunciation for themselves. In the Bodley MS., the


accents are written much in the same places; in the Cambridge MS., they are still scarcer.

The component parts of a word are often written a little way apart. This I denote by a hyphen; thus, the words be-foran, ge-fullod are be foran, ge fullod in the MS.

The errors of the Corpus MS. are left uncorrected; the various readings will in general point out where they occur. We should, however, particularly note the error boceras, i. e. scribes, for bogas, boughs, in xi. 8. The fact of its occurrence in MSS. A. B. C. as well as in the Corpus text shews quite clearly that all are really from the same source. In the Royal MSS. boceras was first written, but altered to bogas, and hence the scribe of the Hatton MS. was enabled to write boges, correctly.

In quoting the various readings, I have strictly followed Mr Kemble's plan, of giving every variation of spelling, with the sole exception of for p, and y for i, which are used interchangeably in all the MSS. It follows that all the MSS. are, for all practical purposes, printed in extenso, and any passage in any of the MSS. (except the imperfect Cotton MS.) can be easily reproduced, with the exception of contractions, and the uncertainty about þ or , and y or i. Thus in i. 3, the Cambridge MS. should have (judging from the notes) the reading— clypigende stefn on þam westene ge-earwia drihtnes weg. do rihte his siðas; whilst the Royal MS. has clepigende stefen on þam westene. ge-garwiad drihtnes weg. do rihte his sydas.

Left-hand pages, column 2. The text and marginal notes (written as rubrics in the MS.) are from the Hatton MS.; the various readings from the earlier Royal MS. The chief peculiarities of the Hatton MS. are the introduction of k for c, as in kymd, bokeres, kydde, for the earlier cymo, boceras, cydde', and a frequent confusion between the letters d and . These latter are written exactly alike, with the exception of a slight stroke through the upper part of the latter, so that the omission of this stroke turns it into a d. I print it as in the MS.; and hence the form secd for seco, i. 37. In i. 32, we find the reverse change, geworden being written for geworden, and ride for ridde. When the double letter occurs, the stroke is sometimes drawn through one letter only, generally the latter; thus odde is written for odde in vii. 12. The letters p and are used indiscriminately at the beginning of a word, but in the middle or at the end we have, almost always, only. Only one sort of stop, a single point, is used; it is here denoted by a full stop. The accents are very few, as they also are in the Royal MS.; we may note them in


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the foreign words iudéeisce, galilée, iudée, and in the native words ansiene, agán, ahof, áþene, sæ, ús, áscaceð, god, gá, þá. There are a few downright blunders, such as un for ut, iii. 23; witege for wite, v. 29; apfata and manslæge for árfata and mæstlinga, vii. 4; brithmen for britsenum, viii. 8; hyfode for lufode, x. 21; &c. One change of spelling, viz. the substitution of ch for c, was probably due to Norman influence; examples of it are ich for ic, and eches for eces. But the most interesting point about this text is the exact evidence it affords of the manner in which the older inflexions of the language were weakened, thus leading the way to their ultimate total or partial suppression. By comparing it with the older text beside it, we literally see the process of this change going on before our eyes. These weakenings were accomplished by the frequent substitution of the slight vowel e for the more distinct a, o, and u, not only when these vowels occur at the end of a word, but when they occur near the end. Hence we find -an, -as, -að replaced by -en, -es, -eð; -od, -oda, -on by -ed, -ede, -en; and -um weakened, not merely into -em, but into -en. Thus, the suna, lendenu of the earlier text become sune, lendene; sprecan, dagas, fulla, gecostnod, gelufoda, penedon, dagum become likewise sprecen, dages, fulled, gecostned, gelufode, peneden, dagen. We even find e for y, as in gelefed for gelyfad. The adoption of en for an was but the prelude to dropping this final consonant altogether; so that, whilst, in ii. 5, laman becomes lamen, two verses above it is written lame; whilst in ii. 4 we find asende for asendan in the plural. Nothing can be clearer than the gradual process of corruption of the infinitive moods of verbs. In earlier MSS. we find, e. g. singan, to sing; shortly before A.D. 1200, it is singen; soon after that date it became singè, a dissyllable. About A.D. 1400, the necessity of sounding the final -e was but slight; but the word continued to be often written singe for some time after the final -e ceased to be pronounced. In course of time, it was generally rejected as useless, and hence our modern sing. This change took place still earlier in the North, where the common ending of the infinitive, even in early times, was a rather than -an. The text of the Hatton MS. shews us the first step towards many such changes very clearly. It may be compared with the latter part of the A. S. Chronicle, from about A.D. 1120 onwards. The rubrics in the Hatton MS. are nearly all found in the Royal MS. in exactly the same places without variation of spelling. The spelling of the Royal MS. is, in general, of an older character, though here also we sometimes find d for 8, as in siwad for siwaɣ, ii. 21.

Right-hand pages. The distinguishing feature of the texts here printed (viz. the Lindisfarne text with its gloss above, and the Rushworth gloss without its text below), is that the glosses are in the Northumbrian dialect, and so present a striking contrast to the West-Saxon texts opposite. The Latin text is written with but few contractions, which are denoted by italics wherever they occur, so that spiritus, sanctus, for example, are expansions of sps, scs. We have frequently the very

common contraction ihs for ihesus or iesus', and xps for christus, where the x is the Greek X (ch) and the p the Greek P (r). There are a few bad mistakes in the Latin, such as eum for cum in ii. 4, nubimus for nubibus in xiii. 26, terner for tener in xiii. 28, and the like; most of these are noticed in the Appendix, and are not to be regarded as misprints. The letter u (never v) is used throughout; the diphthong a is generally written ae. A few accents occur, the words has, dic, and ne, for example, being written hús, díc, and né; p. 103. There is no punctuation in the Lindisfarne MS. The full stops merely denote the end of a verse, and should, strictly speaking, have been omitted. The glossator generally denotes the contraction er by an upward curl, and m by a straight stroke; but nearly all the contractions are alike represented by a short wavy stroke, evidently intended to have a vague meaning. Thus the italicised letters in the words capharnaum, uutedlice, beforan, hierusalem, fulwihteres, are all denoted by much the same stroke, and the italic letters are intended to denote this. In the last case, for instance, the word is spelt fulwih, followed by a curl; and if the reader wishes to expand such a word in any other manner, he is of course at liberty to do soo. Near the beginning of the book, I have left the word het as written in the MS., but I have found it better to expand it into hælend, hælende, or hælendes, as required by grammar. This can cause no difficulty. Elsewhere I have left the contraction t, meaning vel, as written, because it conveniently separates the double glosses. Thus in i. 10, in ipso is interpreted to mean either in dam (in them) or on him, the latter only being correct. Sometimes t is written without being followed by a second gloss (vii. 23). In some words, a small u is written above the line; this is denoted by an italic u. The contraction for and is used throughout. The letter p never occurs, except when used with a stroke through it (p) as a contraction for pet. In a few cases, a d is converted into by an unnecessary stroke through it, as in zebedies for zebedies. Several accents occur over long vowels; these are all printed as in the MS. Some of the foreign names and hard words are left unglossed; and many of the glosses are quite wrong, and exhibit some curious errors. For examples of omissions, see vii. 4. For an example of error, observe the word bifgedon (they trembled) as a translation of fremebant in xiv. 5; the worthy glossator was clearly thinking of tremebant3. In iii. 19, James the son of Alpheus is called 'Jacob the white' (albus). Where the Latin text is wrong, the glossator still carefully follows it; hence the misreading eum for cum in ii. 4 is translated by hine (him). It must be observed also that the gloss being intended to give the sense of each word separately, rather in order that the reader

1 The latter method of expansion is the better one, for the h really stands for a Greek H (e); I have sometimes inadvertently printed ihesus, but this can hardly mislead a reader.

2 In Mr. Kemble's edition of St. Matthew, no such no

tice is given; neither has he always observed the capitals, &c. of the MSS.

3 See the Lindisfarne and Rushworth Gospels (Surtees Society), ed. G. Waring, part iv. pp. civ-cxviii, where the characteristics of the MSS. are fully described.

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