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INTRODUCTION.

The Lindisfarne MS. or Durham Book, marked Nero D. 4, is now one of the Cotton MSS. in the British Museum. “It consists of 258 leaves of thick vellum (131⁄2 by 91⁄2 inches) and contains the four gospels in Latin, written in double columns with an interlinear Northumbrian gloss, together with St. Jerome's Epistle to Pope Damasus, the Eusebian Canons, two prefaces, short notices of the four Evangelists, arguments of the sections into which the Gospels are divided, and tables of lessons to be read on Sundays, festivals, etc. The Latin text was written in the island of Lindisfarne by Eadfrith, who was bishop of Lindisfarne 698-721; so that if he wrote it before his election we must date it before 698. We cannot be far wrong in dating it in round numbers about 700." The glosses were made by one Aldred about the latter half of the tenth century. Who this Aldred was is not known; he has been identified with "Aldred the provost" whose name appears in the Durham Ritual and was entered about 970.

Entries after the title to the Gospel of St. Mark and at the end of the Gospel of St. John give the names of Eadfrith and Aldred, and of two who were employed on the cover of the MS. Aldred seems merely to have superintended the glossing of the first three gospels, but to have glossed the fourth gospel himself. He states that he glossed the Gospel of St. John "for himself." The other gospels are in a different handwriting.2

The Rushworth version of Matthew may be regarded as independent and was made by Farman, a priest at Harwood. The rest of the Rushworth Gloss is very largely a transcription of the Lindisfarne, made under the supervision of Farman by Owun. It belongs to the latter half of the tenth century.

1 W. W. Skeat: Preface to St. Mark, p. xi.

2 Preface to St. John, ix.

3 Ibid., xi ff.

The Northumbrian glosses are altogether distinct from the West Saxon versions, which are probably contemporary with them or a little later.1

Skeat's edition of "The Holy Gospels, Anglo-Saxon and Northumbrian Versions," has formed the basis for this investigation. The capitalization, punctuation, orthography, accents, and to a certain extent the contractions of the MSS. have been retained in this edition. Wherever the edition deviates from the reading of the MS., the original is supplied in the margin. Compound words appear separated in the MS., but the editor has inserted hyphens. This edition contains on the left hand page in column one, the Corpus MS., in column two, the Hatton MS., with variant readings of the other MSS. at the bottom; on the upper part of the right hand page the Lindisfarne interlinear gloss, on the lower part, the Rushworth gloss. Readings of the Latin of the Rushworth which vary from the Lindisfarne are supplied in an appendix.2

The genitive case is used in West-Saxon to denote a great variety of relations between nouns. It is used very extensively to designate the partitive relation. It is also used to express numerous relations ranging from those of pure possession, origin, and relationship to those of a qualifying character. The genitive is sometimes employed to denote a quality, usually requiring a modifier as in other Idg. languages. With nouns denoting an activity it may be used to designate either the subject or the object of the action.

A partitive genitive occurs with many pronouns. It is rarely used with demonstratives and relatives, but frequently with the

1 Preface to St. Luke, p. xii.

2 Note on Editions: This edition was originally designed and commenced by John M. Kemble of Trinity College, Cambridge, but at the time of his death in 1857, he had completed only 24 chapters of Matthew. Rev. C. Hardwick continued the work and the following year the Gospel of St. Matthew appeared. After several years Rev. Walter W. Skeat resumed the work and editions of Mark (1871), Luke (1874), John (1878), and a revised edition of Matthew (1887) followed. The earliest edition of the Northumbrian glosses was prepared by Rev. J. Stevenson and published by the Surtees Society, 1854.

interrogative hwet and the indefinites, sum, alc, hwat, hwelc, hwæthwugu, ader, aghwæder, nan, anig, nænig, awiht, nawiht, nanwiht.1 Eall seldom takes a genitive except when accompanied by dat (rel.); monig, fela, and adjectives generally also take the genitive when used substantively. Comparatives and superlatives whether employed adjectively, substantively, or adverbially are accompanied with the genitive.

The genitive is found with a large number of verbs when the action only tentatively affects the object. Such are verbs meaning: use, enjoy, try, tempt, taste, remember, forget, heed, care for, desire, expect, ask, praise, thank, admonish, rule, free from, deprive of, hinder, refuse, depend, heal, cease, lack, and need. Many of these verbs take a double object and in such cases the accusative of person and genitive of thing is employed, but the dative or instrumental also occurs. None of these verbs govern the genitive exclusively, it being sometimes replaced by an accusative, dative, or instrumental. Verbs of emotion employ a genitive or instrumental to designate the cause or object of the emotion.

An instrumental genitive sometimes accompanies verbs denoting: fill, load, mingle, adorn, bless, humble, afflict, assail, overcome, compel, hold, etc. With many of these the genitive is rare and the dative-instrumental or mid+dative construction occur frequently. The genitive occurs rarely with verbs of 'giving' and 'taking' and related meanings including 'acquisition,' the accusative being ordinarily used. When the genitive is employed its partitive character is easily recognized. Unnan, 'grant,' is the only verb of this class which regularly governs the genitive. Verbs denoting 'help' or 'pity' rarely take the genitive, miltsian, 'pity,' occurring only twice with a genitive, elsewhere in prose and poetry with the dative. A genitive of price, measure, merit or crime occurs with verbs meaning: happen, befall, pay for, deem worthy, avail, and avenge.

1 This statement is based on the relative frequency as indicated by the number of examples cited under each in Wülfing's work. The list is of interest for purposes of comparison with conditions in Northumbrian.

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