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suner berga monigra:-a herd of many swine. 8, 30. See also p. 8.

The partitive idea is also present here.

-degnas his to-geneolecdon dætte æd-eadon him getimbro temples: his disciples approached him to show him the buildings of the temple. 24, 1. Cf. temple his lichomas: the temple of his body. Jno. 2, 21.

-scipum da de deade weron hus Israheles:-to the sheep of the house of Israel who were dead (lost). 15, 24. fulwiht hreonisses:-baptism of repentance. Mark 1, 4.

C. A qualifying genitive may designate the subject or general contents of a book, parable or rumor. This use of the genitive resembles the genitive of material.

Miody gie geheras gefehto and woeno dara gefehtana: when ye hear of wars and rumors of wars. 24, 6. Gie geheras besena ðæs sauende:-hear ye the parable of the Sower. 13, 18.

-to-scead us bisen wun-wæstma londes:-declare to us the parable of the tares of the field. 13, 36.

Boc coneurise Hælendes Cristes:-the book of the generation of Jesus Christ. I, I.

Moses bebead sella boc freodomas and forleta (wifa) :-Moses permitted to give a letter of freedom and to leave (a wife). 19, 7.

This example perhaps differs from the others of this subdivision in denoting purpose in addition to designating the general contents.

boc worda Esaiae:-a book of the sermons of Esaias. Luke 3, 4.

boc dara salma:-book of Psalms. Luke 20, 42.

D. The genitive is used to designate the use which an object is made to serve.

hus min hus gebed1 geceiged wutedlice gie worhton da ilca cofa oððe græfe deafana:-my house is called a house of prayer; ye have made it a dwelling (cave) of thieves. 21, 13.

-ic sitto fiondas dine fot-sconol oððe scemil fota ðinra:—I make thine enemies thine foot stool. 22, 44. Cf. fot-scoemel fota. 5, 35.

-sendes hia in ofn fyres:-cast them into a furnace of fire. 13, 50.

-dade cynnes to iuh in wedum scipa:-who come to you in the garments of sheep. 7, 15.

The above example may also be grouped with the subdivision of concretes to living beings, but the particular use of the genitive here seems to be decidedly qualifying. It is the innocence and goodness that the appearance of sheep suggests which the noun in the genitive brings out rather than any possessive relation, scipa being used in a metaphorical sense.

The following examples resemble some uses of the possessive genitive and may perhaps be classified as such, but the force of the genitive is essentially qualifying and therefore they have been placed here.

-ða ædeawes becen sunu monnes in heofnum:-then shall appear the sign of the Son of Man. 24, 30.

-heofnes ofdoeme uutas ge becena odde tungcla soðlice dæra tid ne maga ge:-ye discern the signs of the sky but ye can not discern the signs of the times. 16, 3.

-becon ne bið sald him buta becon Jones:-signs shall not be given them except the sign of Jona. 16, 4.

―ðæt he gehongiga coern-stan asalda2 oððe asales byrðen stan

1 The above is the reading of Skeat's edition. The MS. reads gebedes which seems more grammatical and is sustained by the reading gebedes hus of the Rushworth MS. The Corpus MS. has the compound gebed-hus. Gebed is a strong neuter and regularly adds es in the genitive singular. The editor offers no reason for the change.

2 Asalda is genitive plural of asald strong feminine. Cf. A Glossary of the Old Northumbrian Gospels, p. 12. The Latin has mola asinaria. The Rushworth version reads cwern esules, thus substantially the same as the Lindisfarne.

in suire his-that he hung a millstone, such as a donkey could carry, about his neck. 18, 6.

-nemot monn senda hia in temple' forðon feh oððe worð blodes hit is:—no man may put it in the temple because it is blood money. 27,6.

-miðoy sittes sunu monnes in sedel godcunnd-mæhtes his:when the Son of Man shall sit in the throne of his glory. 19, 28.

Gif uutedlice ic in gast godes ic drifo diowles-:—but if I drive out devils by the spirit of God. 12, 28.

boc Moses: the book of Moses. Mark 12, 26.

symbel dæge Judeana:—feast-day of the Jews. Jno. 6, 4. eastro Judeana:-the passover of the Jews. Jno. 2, 13.

The noun maht is very frequently further defined by a noun in the genitive.

Maht forgefnise synne:-power to forgive sins. Mark 2, 10. —salde him maht gemnisses to untrymnissum and to-wyrpnise diowla: he gave them power to heal sicknesses and to cast out devils. Mark 3, 15.

maht gasta unclanra:-power over unclean spirits. Mark 6, 7.

-salde ðrællum his maht oððe anweald eghwalces warces: -he gave to his servants authority in everything. Mark 13, 34.

The gerund or the infinitive may be used instead of the genitive.

mægen to hælanne hia:-power to heal them. Luke 5, 17. Sunu monnes mæht hafeð on eorðo forgeafa synna:—the Son

of Man has power on earth to forgive sins. Luke 5, 24. -nastu ðætte mæht ic hafo gehoa dec odde dec to hoanne and maht to forletanne dec odde forleta dec:-knowest thou not that I have power to crucify thee and power to forgive thee. Jno. 19, 10.

The following is similar to the above.

'In templi is inserted in the margin of the MS. and Latin in corbana is not rendered in the body of the text.

leht to ad-eaunise cynna and wuldor folces dines:-a light to lighten the gentiles and the glory of thy people. Luke

2, 32.

The genitive is used with earo to designate their function. This use is similar to that with maht.

earo hernisses:-ears to hear or, for hearing. Mark 4, 23; Luke 8, 8.

Sometimes to heranne is used instead of the genitive as in the following: earo to heranne:-ears to hear. Mark 7, 16. earo to heranne odde hernisses. Luke 14, 35

In the last example the glossator indicates that he regards the two expressions as synonymous.

Further examples of qualifying genitives, of which I am unable to give any general characterization, are the following: suna loswistes:-the son of perdition. Jno. 17, 12.

suno dunres:-children of thunder. Mark 3, 17.

suno eristes:-children of the resurrection. Luke 20, 36. maht Diostrana:-the power of darkness. Luke 22, 53.

This example may be regarded as a genitive of possession, Class C, under the subdivision headed "abstracts to abstracts," but if we consider the figurative use of the noun diostrana, its meaning being "evil," the qualifying character of the dependent noun is apparent.

esprynge blodes:-a fountain of blood. Mark 5, 29.

walla watres saltes:-wells of salt water.

Jno. 4, 14.

biobread huniges:-honey-comb of honey. Luke 24, 42.
tintergo fyres:-torment of fire. Mark 9, 43.
dagas embihtes:-days of ministration. Luke 1, 23.
dag eft-selinise:-day of retribution. Luke 4, 19.
dagas clansunges:-days of purification. Luke 2, 22.

gast untrymnisses:-spirit of infirmity. Luke 13, 11.
gast soðfæstnises: spirit of righteousness. Jno. 15, 26. Cf.

16, 13.

This may also be regarded as a genitive of possession.

as wuto:-the learned in the law. Luke 7, 30.

styð dara sceaðana :-Jno. 20, 25.

sunum wifa:-sons of women, meaning those belonging to the Luke 7, 28.

race of man.

Cynn æterna huu magage godo spreca:-race of vipers how can ye speak good? 12, 34.

Das tuelfe sende de Hælend bebead him and cued in wag hædna oððe cynna ne gaas ge:-these twelve Jesus sent forth and commanded them saying: In the ways of the heathen go ye not. IO, 5.

The following are a few examples of the qualitative genitive. -cueð to him huæt frohtende aron gie lytlo geleafa:-he said to them: Why are ye fearful of little faith? 8, 26. -gesegon hine sede from diowle gebered was gecladed and hales dohtes and ondreardon:-they saw him, who was possessed of the devil, clothed and of sound mind and they feared. Mark 5, 15.


The genitive may be used to denote an agent or source with nouns denoting an activity. Sometimes it is difficult to separate this group from some of those denoting the idea of possession.

-cymmeð gie gebloedsad Fadores mines:1-come ye blessed of my Father. 25, 34.

Ɖa wlonce men forhogas Godes bebod and godspelles:—the

men spurn the commandment of God and of the gospel. Precepta evangelii ðæt aron ða meregrotta dæt sindon godspelles bebodo:-the precepts of the gospels which are the pearls that are the commandments of the gospels. Margin 7, 6. See 15, 3; 15, 6; 15, 9.

Da ongeton fordon ne cuedon to behaldenne from dærstum dara hlafa ah from lar dara aldra:-then they understood that he spoke not to warn them of the leaven of bread but of the doctrine of the elders. 16, 12.. See also 16, 12. Đis all geworden wæs dætte weron gefylled wrioto witgana: 1 Latin reads: ueniti benidicti patres mei. The genitive seems to be connected with the idea contained in the participle.

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