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boetend du bist broderes ðines:-moreover if thy brother shall trespass against thee go and tell him his fault between him and thee alone: if he shall hear thee thou hast gained thy brother. 18, 15.

4. With verbs denoting rule or control.

These verbs regularly appear with the accusative, the Latin employs various cases. Ricsa occurs once with a genitive and in this case agrees with the Latin.

-gie wuton forðon aldormenn hæðna ricsað hiora and ðaðe heist oððe maast sint mæht oððe onweald geðencas in him :-for ye know that the princes of the gentiles govern them and they that are great exercise authority over them. 20, 25.

5. With verbs denoting separation.

Gehreafiga once takes the genitive of the thing, with the accusative of person. The Latin employs the accusative. -æfter don bismeredon hine gehreafadon hine des fellereades

and gegearwadon hine mid gewædum his :-after they had mocked him they deprived him of the purple and clothed him with his own clothes. Mark 15, 20.

This is the only occurrence in which it is accompanied by

a case.

6. The genitive is used with a few verbs to denote the instrument with which the action of the verb is accomplished. More frequently mid + dative is used. And somnas huæte his in ber-ern da halmas wuotetlice for

bernes fyres in un-drysnende:—and gather his wheat into the garner, but he will burn the chaff or straw with unquenchable fire. 3, 12.

Suæ forðon gesomnad biðon ða unwæstma and mið fyr forberned suæ bið in ende woruldes:—as therefore the tares are gathered and destroyed with fire so shall it be in the end of the world. 13, 40.

-and gefylled odde geendad weron da færma ðara sittendra oððe ðara restendra:—and the wedding was furnished with guests. 22, IO.

-genom spynga gefylde mið acced:-he took a sponge filled with vinegar. 27, 48. Cf. Mark 15, 36; Luke 16, 21. -gefylled mið fyrhto:-filled with fear. Luke 4, 26.

-gefylle his womb of bean bælgum:-he filled his belly with bean husks. Luke 15, 16.

-gefylled da fato of watre:-filled the vessel with water. Jno. 2, 7.

-æt hus gefylled wæs of suot stenc dæs smirinises :-the house was filled with a sweet odor from the ointment. Jno., 12, 3.

Ic fulwa iuih in wætre in hreonise dede soðlice æfter mec to cymende is strongra ðon mec oððe don ic is his nam Ic wyrde gesceoe beara he iuih gefulwas in Halig Gast and fyres:-I baptize you with water unto repentance, but he that comes after me is stronger than I am, whose shoes I am not worthy to bear, he shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost and with fire. 3, II.

The Latin of the original accounts for the variety of constructions employed here: in aqua-in Spiritu Sancto-igni (ablative of means).



1. WITH ADJECTIVES OF PLENTY AND WANT. Full takes the genitive and the mid-dative construction. In a few cases a dative is employed.

Cuom to him wif hæbbende stænna fulle smirinisse deorwyrde:

a woman came to him having a jarfull of valuable ointment. 26, 7. Same Luke 7, 37. Cf. full dæs smirinisses. Mark 14, 3.

ombar full wætres:—a pitcher of water. Mark 14, 13. Luke 22, IO.

-binna uutedlice fulle sint nednima:1-but within they are full

of rapine. 23, 25.

And genomon da met-lafo twoelf ceawals odde foder dæra screadunga fullo:-and they gathered the remains twelve baskets full of fragments. 14, 20.

Dara screadung twelf ceulas fulle and of fiscum. Mark 6, 42 and 44. Cf. Mark 8, 8 and 19 and 20.

With mid plus the dative.

-binna fulla sint mið banum deadra:—within they are full of the bones of dead ones. 23, 27.

-fulle aro gie mid leasunge and mið unrehtwisnise:-ye are full of hypocrisy and iniquity. 23, 28.

full mið nidnimcg. Luke 11, 39.

With of.2

bolla full of acced:-a bowl full of vinegar. Jno. 19, 29.

1 Nednima is a weak masculine (Cf. Gl.). The above form may be either a genitive or a dative.

2 Cf. O. N. where of dative is used to express that with which anything is filled. Johan Fritzner: Ordbog over det gamle norske Sprog I, p. 8. Wülfing notes one construction of gefyllan with of but none with full. Cf. II. p. 444.

With the dative:

(Lazarus) gelæg to dura his wundum full:-Lazarus lay at his door full of wounds. Luke 16, 20.


And eft-gemyndig wæs Petrus wordes dætte cuoedend wæs him se Hælend:-and Peter remembered the word that Jesus spoke to him. Mark 14, 72. Same Luke 22, 61. Cf. And gemyste oððe eft-gemyndig waes Petrus to word Haelendes. Math. 26, 75.

And eft-gemyndigo weron wordana his:-and they were mindful of his words. Luke 24, 8.

Gemyndigo wosad wife Lothes:-be mindful of or remember the wife of Lot. Luke 17, 32.

The Latin here employs the genitive throughout. The construction to word is therefore not due to the original but indicates the development of a new construction with gemyndig. O. N. Minnigr, of the same meaning, occurs with a similar construction. Cf. Cleasby, p. 429.


Scyldig occurs with the genitive but it is more frequently used with a prepositional construction.

-hia ondsuaredon cuedon scyldig is deades:-they answered and said: He is guilty of death. 26, 66.

-ne hæfeð eft forgefnise in ecnisse ah synnig odde scyldig bið ðæs ece scyld: he has never forgiveness but he is guilty of eternal guilt. Mark 3, 29.

-alle genidradon hine ðætte were scyldig oððe synnig deaðes: -all condemned him that he was guilty of death. Mark 14, 64.

The Latin has a genitive in the above. In the following of

2 Wif, being a strong neuter which regularly adds es in the genitive, is regarded by Cook as a genitive singular. It is the only occurrence of this form as a genitive which he notes.

dome renders iudicis, to boetanna, concilio, and to tinterge fyres, gehennæ ignis.

Scyldig is also used with to + dative and with the gerund. Dead-synnig just as synnig above is used as a synonym and governs to, from and of +dative.

―eghuelc sede urædas brodere his dead-synnig bið of dome sede uutedlice cueðas broðre his ðu unuis oððe idle scyldig bid to boetanne sede soolice cuedas du idle odde unuis scyldig bid to tinterge fyres:—whosoever is angry with his brother is guilty of judgment, but whosoever says to his brother thou fool is guilty to make a payment—and is guilty of the torment of fire. 5, 22. Cf. O. Norse: Skyldr er sa hverr til at kenna oðrum heil ráð, er guð lér hyggende til:-each one ought to give sound counsel to others, etc. eru þeir skyldir til at fylla syslumanna flokk: -they ought to fill the ranks of workers. Cf. with 5, 22, above: þu munt þykkja skyldastr at bæta fyrir konu þinni : -you will be considered obliged to pay a fine for your wife. Njál. 49 (76, 19) R. Cleasby: Icelandic-English Dictionary, p. 562. Cf. Johan Fritzner: Ordbog over det gamle norske Sprog III, p. 404.

The usage as will be seen from these examples is not just the same though the fact that it is used is important. The employment of til + dative may have varied in Scandinavian territory, and may have been more limited in the dialects represented in Norse and Icelandic works. W. S. does not use to +dative with this class of adjectives. -Pilatus cued un-scendende oððe unscyldig ic am from blode soðfæstes disses :-Pilate said guiltless am I of the blood of this just one. 27, 24.

Wyrde is not used with the genitive but governs to + dative. This construction has no parallel in the other versions nor in W. S. generally. Compare the construction employed with verðr in Old Norse: Doma enkan til dráps verdan:-to deem one worthy or deserving of death. Stjórn, p. 496, 6.

The Latin has a dative throughout with dignus.

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