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gether with Gering's Glossar zu den Liedern der Edda in the second semester. In 1903-1904 this course was taught by Professor Gustaf E. Karsten. In 1904 Dr. Haldor Hermannsson of Copenhagen University was appointed Librarian in charge of the Fiske Icelandic Library, and Instructor in Icelandic and Danish. And he has since given every year a course in Old Icelandic (four students in 1905-06) and one course in Modern Danish (six students in 1905-06). The former course is supplemented by a series of lectures on Old Norse-Icelandic literature. In the course in Danish Groth's Dano-Norwegian Grammar and Sigurd Möller's Udvalgte Stykker af nordiske Forfatteres Värker have been used. This course is planned to form an introduction to the literature of Northern Europe.

While Professor Boyesen's name is more intimately associated with Columbia University it will be in place to say here, that several of his earlier works were written while he was a member of the faculty of Cornell University. These are A Norseman's Pilgrimage, Tales from Two Hemispheres and Falconberg. Further facts relative to Boyeson will be found under 4 below. For publications by Professor Boyesen as well as by Professors Willard Fiske, J. M. Hart and C. S. Northrup, see Bibliography.

4. The fourth in order will be Columbia University, New York City. The study of the Scandinavian languages was here introduced by Professor C. Sprague Smith, who gave a course in Danish in 1880-1881. Swedish was first taught two years later. As has been related above, H. H. Boyesen became Professor of German in Columbia in 1883. In the following year Dr. W. H. Carpenter was appointed 'Instructor in Icelandic, Danish and Swedish.' The latter had studied Old Norse, Icelandic and Danish in Copenhagen and Leipzig. He had also passed some time in Iceland to perfect his knowledge of Modern Icelandic. He was promoted to the doctorate degree in Halle in 1881, and had published in that year a Grundriss der neuisländischen Grammatik. During the first year Dr. Carpenter gave instruction in Icelandic and Danish. Professor Boyesen conducted a class in Swedish and a conversation class in Norwe

gian. He also lectured on Danish-Norwegian literature, while Professor Smith lectured on Swedish literature. There were, then, three men who were giving instruction at that time in Scandinavian languages and literature in Columbia University. The active interest which these men took in the subject had a healthy influence upon the study of Scandinavian in the eastern universities in general. And it may be said that the Germanic faculty of Columbia University has ever since contributed its fair share to the cultivation of Scandinavian letters among the colleges of this country.

Boyesen was born in Norway in 1848. After the usual course in a Latinskole, he entered the University of Christinia, whence he received his artium in 1868, having shown special aptitude for the study of philology. He came to New York in 1869, and was already in 1870 installed as assistant editor of Fremad in Chicago. In September of that year he accepted an appointment as Instructor in Latin and Greek in Urbana College in Ohio. It was here that he wrote his first story Gunnar, which however was not issued in book form until 1874. 1 In 1873 Boyeson travelled in Norway, England and France, and thereupon spent a year in the study of Germanic Philology in Leipzig University. Of his work at Cornell and his subsequent call to Columbia mention has already been made. Professor Boyeson remained at the head of the Department of Germanic Languages and Literature in Columbia University until his death in 1895 at the age of forty-seven. Here he published among other works The Story of Norway, 1886, The Modern Vikings, 1888, A Commentary on the Writings of Henrik Ibsen, 1893, and Essays on Scandinavian Literature, 1895. For his other works see Bibliography. Of Boyesen's various works the last is undoubtedly the best. His Commentary on Ibsen is ambitious, but falls very much short of accomplishing what it sets out to do, and often fails utterly to interpret the poet.

Scandinavian activity in Columbia University received fur

1 A very well written appreciation of Boyeson, as a write may be found in Syrma, 1906, written by Dr. Michael A. Mikkelson of New York City. For some of these facts I am indebted to Dr. Mikkelson's article.

ther support by the accession of Dr. Thomas R. Price 1 as Professor of English in 1882. Professor Price's favorite field of study was Greek and English, but he had also given considerable time to the study of Norwegian and Danish literature. In 18911892 he travelled and studied in Scandinavia, especially in Denmark, where he came in actual contact with the living language and the life of the people, of whose literature he had long been an ardent student. It was especially the Scandinavian drama that attracted him, at first the Danish drama, later Henrik IbProfessor Price possessed a remarkable knowledge of the Danish and the Norwegian languages. Professor Charles L. Baldwin, in his necrology of Professor Price in The Journal of English and Germanic Philology, V, pp. 239-252, cites 'the testimony of an accomplished Dane, with whom he often talked at large, that Professor Price was an independent master of Danish literature:' 'His critical acumen, at least as regards Danish words, was little short of amazing. So subtle a perception had he acquired of the characteristics of the Danish language that his judgment was almost authoritative.' 2

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During the last years of Professor Price's life he devoted himself especially to dramaturgical studies. These studies take their beginning with his year in the Scandinavian North, and particularly with his study of the theatres of Copenhagen, which to him was the great stage of our time. 3 In 1891 (May 14th) he read a paper on Ibsen's Dramatic Method, Compared with Shakespeare's, before the New York Shakespeare Society. The text on which the comparison is based is Hedda Gabler; the paper was published in 1892 in No. 1, Vol. IX, of Shakespeariana. An article entitled Solness; a Study of Ibsen's Dramatic Method in Sewanee Review, Vol. II, No. 3 (1894), deals with the technique of The Master Builder. A list of his unpublished lectures in the Scandinavian field may be found in the necrology referred to.

1 Professor in Randolph-Macon College 1868-1876, University of Virginia 1876-1882. Professor Price was born in Richmond, Va. in 1839.

2 Citing letter from Mr. Joakim Reinhard of July 22d, 1903, adding "the statement is supported by details too numerous to quote."

3 J.E.G.P. V p. 249.

I have above spoken of Dr. Carpenter's coming to Columbia University. In 1886 his title was changed to that of Instructor in German and the Scandinavian Languages, and he was later promoted to Assistant Professor. Upon Professor Boyesen's death in 1895, Dr. Carpenter was advanced to the Professorship in Germanic Philology, and Professor Calvin Thomas of the University of Michigan was elected Professor of German Language and Literature. The Scandinavian languages thus, it will be seen, disappeared from Professor Carpenter's title, and they unfortunately do not to-day appear in the title of any member of instructional staff of the department which includes the Teutonic languages and literatures in Columbia University. As a rule Professor Carpenter has had a two-hour course in Old Norse every year. In addition there was given in 1893-1895 a more literary course for advanced students. At the present time the course for beginners alternates with the advanced course. In the former Kahle's Altisländisches Elementarbuch is used, generally preceded by Sweet's Primer. In the latter the poems of the Elder Edda are read in Finnur Jónsson's edition, Die Eddalieder, Leipzig, 1888.

The study of Icelandic and the Edda and saga literature has always been Professor Carpenter's peculiar delight. His many students in these subjects, in the twenty-four years he has taught them, recognize in him an able and inspiring interpreter of the great literature of the old Norsemen. In recent years he has turned with increasing interest to the literature of Norway in the 19th century, and he has in this field frequently contributed critical articles, more especially on Ibsen and Björnson, to the columns of various literary periodicals. Of his publications on Icelandic literature and folk-lore and on modern Norwegian writers I shall here further mention: 'The Icelandic Story of Cinderella' in The Folk-lore Record, Vol. III, the articles on "The Eddas' and 'Henrik Ibsen' in The Library of the World's Best Literature, Vols. IX and XIV, and 'A Fragment of Old Icelandic,' Modern Languages Notes, 1888, pp. 117-123. For other publications see Bibliography. Professor Carpenter was born in Utica, N. Y., July 15, 1853.

The instruction in the modern Scandinavian languages has, since 1897, been given by Professor Calvin Thomas. Courses in Swedish alternate bi-annually with introductory courses in Danish-Norwegian. In the first of these Tegner's Frithjofs Saga and selected Swedish poems are read, this being generally (as in 1896-1897) supplemented by lectures on the history of the Swedish language. In the second course Oehlenschlaeger and Björnson are read, together with one or two of Ibsen's dramas. In his sabbatical year of 1905-1906 Professor Thomas travelled in Norway, Sweden and Germany. During the current year a course has been given in Swedish with May's Swedish Grammar, Stockholm, 1893, a Reader in Swedish literature and the study of Tegnér's Frithjofs Saga.

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The Scandinavian collection in the Columbia University library is one of the most complete in the East. Especially well represented is the Edda and the saga literature, including all important critical works on that field. The collection also contains all the more recent writers in Norwegian, Swedish and Danish. There are further in New York City the Old Norse collection in The Astor Library, which are, of course, accessible to students of Columbia University. Add to this the fact of the frequent presentation of Scandinavian dramas in New York theatres 1 and it is evident that Columbia University affords peculiar advantages to the student of the language or literature of the Northern countries. A broad spirit of comparative study characterizes the literary departments of Columbia University, as indicated in the nature of the courses and in the work of such men as the late Professor Price and of Professors Calvin Thomas, Brander Matthews, Wm. H. Carpenter, A. V. W. Jackson, George R. Carpenter, Dr. Arthur F. J. Remy 2 and others. Of recent doctoral dissertations published in Columbia University Germanic Studies two have dealt with the Scandinavian field: one on Scandinavian Influence on Southern Lowland Scotch, 1900, by George T. Flom, and one on Scandinavian Influence on

1 As the last season Iben's Peer Gynt by Richard Mansfield, A Doll's House and Hedda Gabler by Alla Nazimova and Brand and Peer Gynt with the Norweign actor. Gran in the title roles.

2 Whose doctorate dissertation dealt with: The Influence of Persia upon German Literature. No. 4 in Columbia University Germanic Studies.

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