Premiers écrits: Francfort 1797-1800

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Vrin, 1997 - 480 pages
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Si l'invention du sens moderne du mot Etat est due a Machiavel, c'est au XVIIIe siecle que, apres la paix d'Utrecht, l'institution etatique prit franchement le visage de la modernite. Faisant suite a l'Etat baroque (1610-1652) et a l'Etat classique (1652-1715), l'Etat moderne (1715-1848) donna corps aux espoirs de paix, de justice, de bonheur et de liberte secretes par la philosophie des lumieres. Il realisa les grandes mutations juridiques qui devaient contribuer a forger l'epure de l'Idee republicaine a laquelle la Revolution de France donna sa premiere forme historique. Cet ouvrage s'est voulu pluridisciplinaire. En rassemblant des contributions dont la tonalite est historique, juridique, litteraire, philosophique ou politologique, il a pour objectif d'apporter sur la periode fascinante de l'histoire occidentale ou s'est affirme l'Etat moderne, des eclairages diversifies complementaires.

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G S 56 une éthique
G S 66 Abraham né en Chaldée
G S 70 À lépoque dAbraham
G S 73 Le penchant pour le jeu de cartes
G S 75 Que les magistrats doivent être élus
G S 78 Les beaux rapports
G S 90 À propos de son origine
G S 92 Contre les vagues du courant
G S 94 ler livre La première proposition sert
G S 95 Le concept de positivité dune religion
G S 96 Limpression immédiate
Si en cette heure solennelle
G S 99 Le jeune homme

G S 80 À lépoque où Jésus
G S 8389 Modification vivante
G S 84 Cest à cette fin que sert tout le reste
G S 85 Il court en larges cercles
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About the author (1997)

Born the son of a government clerk in Stuttgart, Germany, George Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel received his education at Tubingen in theology. Arguably the most influential philosopher of the nineteenth century, Hegel's lectures---most notably at the University of Berlin from 1818 to his death---deeply influenced not only philosophers and historians but generations of political activists of both the Right and Left, champions of the all-powerful nation-state on the one hand and Karl Marx on the other. His lectures at Berlin were the platform from which he set forth the system elaborated in his writings. At the heart of Hegel's philosophy is his philosophy of history. In his view, history works in a series of dialectical steps---thesis, antithesis, synthesis. His whole system is founded on the great triad---the Idea as thesis, Nature as antithesis, and the Spirit as synthesis. The Idea is God's will; Nature is the material world, including man; Spirit is man's self-consciousness of the Idea, his coming to an understanding of God's will. The formation over time of this consciousness is History. Spirit does not exist in the abstract for Hegel, but is comprehended in "peoples," cultures, or civilizations, in practice states. Hegelian Freedom is only possible in organized states, where a National Spirit can be realized. This National Spirit, a part of the World Spirit, is realized in History largely through the actions of World Historical Individuals, heroes such as Napoleon, who embody that Spirit. A profound misunderstanding of this doctrine led many German intellectuals to subvert it into a narrow, authoritarian nationalism that glorified the "state" as an end in itself. Although Hegel saw his philosophy as universal, applicable throughout the world, the focus and inspiration of his thought was European. And in his own even smaller world, he was content to support and work for the Prussian state, which he believed to be the highest development of history up to that time.

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