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und

15. März 1894.

Nr. 10619. Die Korrektionen der Jupiterörter sind das einzige sicher zu ermittelnde Fehlerelement; ihre Berücksichtigung würde die abgeleitete Länge um 4.5 Frankreich. ändern. Führt man da (, dồ (, dq, dλ und dz mit den oben angegebenen Beträgen ein und nimmt den ungünstigsten Fall an, dass die an die berechnete Länge anzubringenden Verbesserungen alle nach derselben Seite fallen, so würde sich 12.9 als Verbesserung der Länge ergeben. || In Betracht zu ziehen ist nun noch der Umstand, dass nur ein Mondrand und nur bei wachsender Zenithdistanz beobachtet ist. Es sind daher systematische Fehler, welche von individueller Auffassung der Ränder und dergleichen herrühren, nicht aus dem Resultate eliminirt. Welche Beträge diesen Fehlern im vorliegenden Falle thatsächlich zukommen, ist nicht festzustellen, da Material zur Diskussion dieses Punktes nicht vorliegt. Es ist indessen nicht sehr wahrscheinlich, dass hierdurch die Beobachtungszeiten des Mondes um 1" falsch aufgefasst worden sind. Nimmt man indessen, um allen Eventualitäten Rechnung zu tragen, an, ein derartiger Auffassungsfehler sei im Betrage von 2 vorhanden gewesen, so würde die erhaltene Länge um 51* falsch sein. || In Berücksichtigung aller dieser angeführten Umstände ist als sicher anzunehmen, dass die abgeleitete Länge von Bania (11 4m 11" östlich von Greenwich) nicht um mehr als 1m falsch sein kann; es erscheint sogar als sehr wahrscheinlich, dass die wirkliche Unsicherheit weit unterhalb dieses Betrages liegt.

Kgl. Sternwarte Leipzig, den 18. Dezember 1893.

Dr. B. Peter,

1. Observator der Kgl. Sternwarte.

Verhandlungen zwischen England und Portugal *).

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Nr. 10620. ENGLAND. Der Minister des Auswärtigen an den
Uebersendet einen am

Gesandten in Lissabon.

20. August mit dem portugiesischen Gesandten abgeschlossenen Vertrag.

Foreign Office, August 25, 1890.

Nr. 10620. Sir, I transmit herewith a copy of a Convention between Her Majesty England. the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and His 25.Aug. 1890. Majesty the King of Portugal and the Algarves with respect to Territories in Africa, which was signed on the 20th instant.

Salisbury.

*) Engl. Blaubücher Africa Nr. 2 (1890–91), Africa Nr. 5 (1891) und Africa Nr. 7(1891).

Nr. 10620.

Inclosure. Convention between Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom England. of Great Britain and Ireland and His Majesty the King of Portugal and the 25.Aug. 1890. Algarves with respect to Territories in Africa.

Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India, &c., &c., &c., and His Most Faithful Majesty the King of Portugal and the Algarves, &c., &., &., being animated with the desire. to draw closer the ties of friendship which unite the two nations, and to settle by common accord certain matters relative to their respective spheres of influence in Africa, have determined to conclude a Convention to that effect, and have named as their respective Plenipotentiaries-that is to say:- || Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India, the Right Honourable Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne Cecil, Marquis of Salisbury, Earl of Salisbury, Viscount Cranborne, Baron Cecil, Peer of the United Kingdom, Knight of the Most Noble Order of the Garter, Member of Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, &c.; | And His Most Faithful Majesty the King of Portugal and the Algarves, August Cesar Barjona de Freitas, Councillor of His Majesty and of State, Peer of the Realm, Minister and Honorary Secretary of State, Grand Cross of Christ and Grand Cross of several foreign Orders, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of His Most Faithful Majesty at the Court of Her Britannic Majesty, &c.; || Who, having communicated to each other their respective full powers found in good and due form, have agreed upon the following Articles:

Article I.

Great Britain agrees to recognize, as within the dominion of Portugal in East Africa, the territories bounded 1. To the north by a line which follows the course of the River Rovuma from its mouth up to the confluence of the River M'Sinje, and thence westerly along the parallel of latitude to the shore of Lake Nyassa. || 2. To the west by a line which, starting from the above-mentioned frontier on Lake Nyassa, follows the eastern shore of the lake southwards as far as the parallel of latitude 13° 30′ south; thence it runs in a south-easterly direction to the eastern shore of Lake Chiuta, which it follows. Thence in a direct line to the eastern shore of Lake Chilwa, or Shirwa, which it follows to its south-easternmost point; thence in a direct line to the easternmost affluent of the River Ruo, and thence follows that affluent, and, subsequently, the centre of the channel of the Ruo to its confluence with the River Shiré. From thence it runs in a direct line to a point half-way between Tété and the Kabra-bassa Rapids. [] The Settlement of Zumbo, with a radius on the northern bank of 10 English miles, remains under the dominion of Portugal, but shall not, without the previous consent of Great Britain, be transferred to any other Power.

Nr. 10620.
England.

25. Aug. 1890.

Article II.

To the south of the Zambesi, the territories within the Portuguese sphere of influence are bounded by a line which, starting from a point opposite the western extremity of the 10-mile radius of Zumbo, runs directly southwards. as far as the 16th parallel of south latitude, follows that parallel to its intersection with the 31st degree of east longitude (Greenwich), thence running eastward direct to the point where the River Mazoe is intersected by the 33rd degree of east longitude; it follows that degree southwards to its intersection by the 18° 30' parallel of south latitude; runs along that parallel westward to the affluent of the River Save or Sabi, which is called the River Masheke; follows that affluent, and afterwards the centre of the main channel of the Save, to the confluence of the Lunte, whence it strikes direct to the northeastern point of the frontier of the South African Republic, and follows the eastern frontier of the Republik, and the frontier of Swaziland, to the River Maputa. | Portugal engages not to cede her territories to the south of the Zambesi to any other Power without the previous consent of Great Britain.

Article III.

Great Britain engages not to make any objection to the extension of the sphere of influence of Portugal, south of Delagoa Bay, as far as a line following the parallel of the confluence of the River Pongola with the River Maputa to the sea-coast. || Portugal engages, that the territory of which the limits are defined in this Article shall not, without the consent of Great Britain, be transferred to any other Power.

Article IV.

It is agreed, that the western line of division separating the British from the Portuguese sphere of influence in Central Africa shall follow the centre of the channel of the Upper Zambesi, starting from the Katima Rapids up to the junction with that river of the River Kabompo, and thence up the centre of the channel of the Kabompo. The country hereby recognized as Portuguese shall not, without the consent of Great Britain, be transferred to any other Power. It is understood on both sides, that nothing in this Article shall affect the existing rights of any other State. Subject to this reservation, Great Britain will not oppose the extension of the Portuguese sphere of influence beyond the above-mentioned limits.

Article V.

Portugal agrees to recognize, as within the sphere of influence of Great Britain on the north of the Zambesi, the territories extending from the line described in the preceding Article to Lake Nyassa, including the islands in that lake south of parallel 11° 30', and to the line described in Article I, with the exception of Zumbo and a radius of 10 English miles round it.

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Portugal agrees to recognize, as within the sphere of influence of Great 25.Aug. 1890. Britain to the south of the Zambesi, the territories bounded on the east and north-east by the line described in Article II.

Article VII.

All the lines of demarcation traced in Articles I to VI shall be subject to rectification by Agreement between the two Powers, in accordance with local requirements.

Article VIII.

The two Powers engage, that neither will interfere with any sphere of influence assigned to the other by Articles I to VI. One Power will not in the sphere of the other make acquisitions, conclude Treaties, or accept sovereign rights or Protectorates. || It is understood, that no Companies nor individuals subject to one Power can exercise sovereign rights in a sphere assigned to the other, except with the assent of the latter.

Article IX.

Trading and mineral Concessions, and rights to real property, held by Companies or individuals, subjects of one Power, shall, if their validity is duly established, be recognized in the sphere of the other Power. It is understood, that Concessions must be worked in accordance with local Laws and Regulations. || If a difference of opinion shall arise between the two Governments as to the validity of the Concession, or as to the equitable character or suitability of the above-mentioned local Laws and Regulations, it shall be settled by the arbitration of a jurisconsult of a neutral nationality.

Article X.

In all territories in Africa belonging to or under the influence of either Power, missionaries of both countries shall have full protection. Religious toleration and freedom for all forms of divine worship and religious teaching are guaranteed.

Article XI.

The two Powers engage, that, in their respective spheres, as defined in Articles I to VI, trade shall enjoy complete freedom; the navigation of the lakes, rivers and canals, and of the ports on those waters, shall be free to both flags; and no differential treatment shall be permitted as regards transport or coasting-trade; goods, of whatever origin, shall be subject to no dues except those, not differential in their incidence, which may be levied for objects directly connected with the administration, or the suppression of the Slave Trade under the provisions of the Act of the Brussels Conference, or to meet expenditure in the interest of trade; no transit-dues shall be permitted, and no monopoly or favour in matters of trade can be granted. The sub

England.

Nr. 10620. jects of either Power will be at liberty to settle freely in the territories within 25. Aug. 1890. the respective spheres. | Portugal reserves her right to exclude from the operation of the free zone provisions of the Act of Berlin, and from the provisions of the preceding paragraph, her ports on the East Coast. She also reserves the right to exclude from the operation of the provisions of the preceding paragraph her ports on the West Coast. She engages, however, not to charge transit-dues exceeding a maximum of 3 per cent on goods passing in transit inwards or outwards between the coast and the British sphere of influence, either by land or water. These dues shall in no case have a differential character, and shall not exceed the customs dues levied on the same goods at the above-mentioned ports. || It is understood, that, under the terms of this Article, there shall be freedom for the passage of subjects and goods of both Powers across the Zambesi, and through the districts adjoining the river for the purpose of such passage, along its whole course, without hindrance of any description and without payment of transit-dues. || It is further understood, that within a zone of 20 English miles on the north bank of the Zambesi Portugal shall have the right to construct roads, railways, bridges and telegraph-lines across the territories reserved to British influence on the north of the Zambesi. Both Powers shall have the same right within a zone of 10 English miles on the south of the Zambesi between Tété and the confluence of the Chobe, and within a zone of the same dimensions running from the north-east of the British sphere south of the Zambesi to the above-mentioned zone. The two Powers shall have the power, in these zones, of acquiring, on reasonable conditions, the land necessary for such objects, and shall receive all other requisite facilities. They shall also be allowed facilities for the construction on the river, between the above-named limits, of piers and landing-places for the purpose of trade or navigation. All materials for the construction of roads, railways, bridges and telegraph-lines shall be admitted free of charge. | Differences of opinion between the two Governments as to the execution of their respective obligations, incurred in accordance with the provisions of the preceding paragraph, shall be referred to the arbitration of two experts, one of whom shall be chosen on behalf of each Power, who shall select an Umpire, whose decision, in case of difference between the Arbitrators, shall be final. If the two experts cannot agree upon the choice of an Umpire, this Umpire shall be selected by a neutral Power.

Article XII.

The navigation of the Zambesi and Shiré, without excepting any of their branches and outlets, shall be entirely free for the ships of all nations.

Article XIII.

Merchant-ships of the two Powers shall in the Zambesi, its branches and outlets, have equal freedom of navigation, whether with cargo or ballast, for

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