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Two further unique features.

Derivation of the word.

the Mozarabic.

6. The distinct traces of an Invocation of the Holy Spirit in not a few examples of the Prayer called 'Post Pridie,' which immediately follows the Words of Institution.

In addition to its general characteristics (mentioned in p. xxiii) this family has two unique Liturgical peculiarities. I. The rubrics are cast in the imperative mood, instead of the present or future indicative, as in all other Liturgies; e. g. whereas we should find in other Liturgies Tum dicit (or dicet) Sacerdos, we should have here Tum dicat Sacerdos. When this peculiarity is once observed, the effect of it is striking and unmistakeable. This is directly proveable indeed only of the Mozarabic; for no rubrics of the Gallican Liturgy are extant: but it comes out again curiously in the Sarum and other mediaeval English Uses, wherein certain Gallican features are engrafted upon a Roman stock. 2. The other peculiarity is the so-called 'Praefatio Missae' of the Gallican, or 'Oratio Missae' of the Mozarabic (see p. 315), which must be carefully distinguished from the 'Preface' commonly so-called; being a short exhortation or address to the people on the subject of the particular day, designed to stir the congregation to greater recollection and devotion.

§ xii. The Mozarabic Liturgy.

Of the derivation of the term 'Mozarabic' there is no doubt. It is from the participle of an Arabic derivative verb. From the substantive Arab is formed the verb estarab (arabizo, to adopt the Arab mode of life), the participle of which is mostarab, one who has adopted the Arab mode of life. Hence by an easy The propriety how

Its applica- transposition of letters comes 'Mozarab.'


ever of the term as an appellation of the Liturgy known by it is not so obvious: for that Liturgy is without doubt the old national Liturgy of the Spanish Church, which was substantially the same as we now know it in the time of Isidore of Seville, in the sixth century, nearly two centuries before the Moorish invasion; and which Isidore did not compose, but only aranged and perfected. In fact there is no reasonable ground for doubting that to whatever period we are to assign the first organization of a Christian Church in Spain, to the same period

belonged a first form of that Liturgy which by the labours of Isidore, Leander, and others was developed into the 'Mozarabic' Liturgy. There is nowhere a trace of Arab influence upon it. But the term 'Mozarab' was applied to those Christians and Jews who, from fear of persecution, adopted the customs of their Arab rulers: and this 'Arabizing' was made a distinct charge against the clergy of Cordova in the tenth century. Is it possible that, as during the tenth and eleventh centuries a series of determined attempts were made to substitute the Roman Liturgy throughout Spain for the national rite, the name 'Mozarabic' was affixed to this Liturgy by the favourers of this movement, in order to discredit it by a question-begging epithet?



The Roman Liturgy was forced upon the Spanish Church This Liturgy towards the end of the eleventh century; yet certain Churches dropped. were permitted to retain the old rite. Four centuries elapsed, and by this time it had nearly fallen into abeyance, even in these Churches: and such knowledge of its details as the priests possessed was chiefly traditional, since the Office-books were written in the old Gothic character, the knowledge of which had all but passed away. Thus, quite at the beginning Revived by of the sixteenth century, Cardinal Ximenes, anxious to restore Ximenes. and keep alive its use, first employed a learned divine, Dr. Alfonso Ortiz, to restore and superintend the reprinting of the Office-books, and then founded and endowed a College of priests at Toledo to carry out his purpose. At present, according to Dr. Neale, this chapel, two parish churches at Toledo and one at Salamanca, are the only remaining places where this liturgy is used.


The Mozarabic Office-books, Missal and Breviary, which are Leslie's Edinow commonly known, are these restored books of Cardinal Ximenes. They have been reprinted with a learned Introduction and Notes by Leslie (4to. Rome, 1755), the most accessible form of which work is the edition in Migne's 'Patrologia Latina,' tom. lxxxi, lxxxii, from which the text reprinted below is arranged.

In the Mozarabic rite as thus represented there are some The Roman



Other authorities.

Double ending to the Prayers.

The Gallican

Liturgy lost.

few assimilations to Roman use. It is far more probable that these had crept in unperceived in the lapse of time, while the rite was for the most part neglected, and the Roman Liturgy was used everywhere around, than that they were purposely inserted by Cardinal Ximenes or his coadjutor. Leslie thinks that they are easily discernible on careful scrutiny, and separable from the rest of the office. The three principal instances which he notes are:-1. The insertion of a Confiteor and Introibo for the Priest at the beginning of the office, whereas the old Spanish rite places this before the Illation. Both are found in the Ximenian Missal. 2. Similarly there is a double Elevation. The old rite places this at a little interval after the Consecration, just before the Creed. Another is inserted, as in the Roman rite, immediately after the Consecration. 3. There is also, besides the regular Commemoration of the Living and Dead, which occurs, as in the Gallican, just after the Offertory, a second memento for the Living after the Consecration.

The chief authorities that we have for judging of the nature of the Mozarabic Liturgy anterior to the time of Cardinal Ximenes are the treatise of Isidore of Seville (Hispalensis) 'De Officiis Ecclesiasticis,' and the Canons of the early Spanish Councils, especially those of the Fourth Council of Toledo (A. D. 633). The meaning of the epithets 'mixtum sive plenarium,' applied to the Missal of Cardinal Ximenes, will be seen in the Glossary (infra s. v. Missale ').

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It is a peculiarity of this Liturgy that the prayers have commonly a double ending: that is to say, at the conclusion of the petitions the Choir responds 'Amen:' then the Priest says a Doxology, to which again the Choir responds 'Amen.' The ceremony of the Fraction' too is very elaborate and symbolical.

There is an Essay on this Liturgy in Dr. Neale's Essays on Liturgiology.'

xiii. The Gallican Liturgy.

Unlike the Mozarabic, which has never wholly ceased to be a living rite, the Gallican Liturgy was absolutely suppressed in

the beginning of the ninth century. In the seventeenth century it was not even known that any monuments of it existed, when Cardinal Thomasius, about the year 1680, published three Sacramentaries possessing, as he pointed out, characteristics which the Gallican Liturgy ought to possess. These are the Sacramentaries, which are, also reprinted by Mabillon and Muratori, and which are known as the Missale Gothicum, Missale Gallicum, and Missale Francorum; being supposed to represent the missals of the Liturgy current respectively in South Gaul (where the Goths were established in the fifth century), in Middle Gaul, and in North-western Gaul (where was the Frankish kingdom).

and its com

It is necessary here to remember that in earlier times, before The Missal, the invention of printing gave facilities for multiplying copies, ponent parts, and so encouraged the use of missalia plenaria, four books, or sets of books, were necessary for the due celebration of the Mass. These were (1) the Sacramentarium, or Missale in the narrower sense of the word, containing the Prayers and other parts of the service said by the Priest at the Altar; (2) the Lectionarius, and (3) the Evangelistarium, both for the Readers, or Deacons; and (4) the Antiphonarium, or book of Anthems (sometimes also called Graduale), for the use of the Choir. The rubrics were to a great extent traditional.


For the Gallican Liturgy no Antiphonarium has yet been No Gallican discovered, nor are the rubrics known. It is therefore impos- known. sible to reconstruct completely the Gallican Liturgy, either the entire Mass for any one day, or all the changes for the various days. At the same time we do know a good deal about the order of it, and about many of its details.




The sources of information which we have are the following: Sources for -Besides the three Sacramentaries above mentioned, there is a ing this fourth Sacramentary, called Bobbiense, from the place Bobbio, Four Sacrawhere it was discovered by Mabillon. It was published by him in 1687 in the first volume of his 'Museum Italicum.' There is also a Lectionary called Luxoviensis, from Luxeuil, A Lectionwhere the same learned man discovered it. This is published in his treatise 'De Liturgia Gallicana.'


Mone's Frag




Antiphonarium Banchorense.

The two

'Epistles' of

Besides these documents there are a few fragments of Sacramentaries belonging to a distinctly earlier stage in the history of this Liturgy. Such are the valuable fragments of eleven Masses published by Mone in his 'Lateinische und griechische Messen u. s. w.' (4to. Frankf. 1850), and reprinted at the Pitsligo Press in the unhappily unfinished collection of Gallican documents, begun by Dr. Neale and Rev. G. H. Forbes. Mone discovered them in the library at Karlsruhe in a palimpsest MS, which had once belonged to the Abbey of Reichenau; whence these Masses are sometimes called the 'Missale Richenovense.' Some of the Masses at least cannot be later than the third century.

Bunsen (Anal. Ante-Nic., vol. iii. pp. 263-66) publishes a few more fragments which Niebuhr had communicated to him from a palimpsest in the Library of St. Gall, including part of the Preface from a 'Missa pro Defunctis,' which he attributes to S. Hilary of Poictiers (cir. 350).

There are a few more disjointed fragments from a palimpsest in the Ambrosian Library at Milan, given by Cardinal Mai in his Scriptorum Veterum Vaticana Collectio,' tom. iii. pt. 2, p. 247. As these are perhaps less accessible than the rest, we reprint them at the end of this Introduction from Cardinal Mai's transcription; partly too in the hope of calling the attention of some competent scholar to a document that might turn out, if properly examined and collated, a most valuable addition to the scanty materials for a study of this Liturgy.

The so-called 'Antiphonarium Banchorense,' published by Muratori in his 'Anecdota,' vol. iv. pp. 121-59, and reprinted in Migne's 'Patrologia,' tom. lxxii, may be mentioned here, as probably connected with the Gallican rituals. It is not an Antiphonary,' properly so-called; but a collection of Hymns and Prayers, apparently put together for the use of the monks of the (Irish) Bangor.

These are all the remains of any actually liturgical Gallican S. Germanus. formulae that we possess. Next in importance are the two Epistles attributed to S. Germanus, already mentioned more than once. The first is concerned with the Mass, and is com

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