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ANCTUS, Sanctus, Sanctus, Dominus Deus Sabaoth. Pleni sunt cœli et terra gloria tua: osanna (Hosanna, Rom.) in excelsis. Benedictus qui venit in nomine Domini: osanna (Hosanna, Rom.) in excelsis. Postea sacerdos adorans cru

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meam, et conforta me nunc in hac hora: quia imperfectum meum vident oculi tui. Adoramus," &c. Micrologus, cap. xij, attempts to prove that such interpolations are objectionable (as certainly they are, but not) because they were never allowed to be made in the canon without the highest authority. For certainly the canon cannot be said to begin until the "Te igitur." As I mention presently, the canon was not only to be said secreto but was also called secretum ; whereas the prefaces are said "clara voce ;" and there is no special direction to the contrary as regards this prayer in the Hereford use.

SARUM.

Canon Missae.'

BANGOR.

EBOR.

Functis manibus2 sacerdos inclinet se dicens: 3

T

E igitur, clementissime Pater, per Jesum Christum Filium tuum Dominum nostrum supplices rogamus ac petimus:

1 (Canon missa.) "Oratio quæ incipit, Te igitur, quamque sequitur Pater, dicitur canon, quippe quæ tanquam regula in sacrificio offerendo servanda, nunquamque mutanda præscripta fuerit." Le Brun, tom. i. p. 197.

To ask by whom the canon of the mass was drawn up, or who may rightly be called the author of it, is an idle enquiry. Subject to some few verbal variations, the canon has remained the same from the end of the sixth century to the present time. Very probably it was the same up to the third century, with the exception of slight additions made from time to time. We shall never probably know the exact form and words of the Roman liturgy, during the first three hundred years of the Christian æra. But we may be sure that in the spirit of its arrangement and in the character and general language of its prayers and ceremonies the canon of the mass up to the apostolic age did not differ from the canon as it was observed for nearly a thousand years in the church of England before the reformation, and as it still is in the Roman catholic church. throughout the world. We may use the words of Walafrid Strabo who wrote in the ninth century: "Ipsam actionem, qua conficitur sacrosanctum corporis et sanguinis Dominici mysterium (quam quoque Romani canonem, ut in pontificalibus sæpius invenitur, appellant) quis primus ordinaverit, nobis

Canon Missae.

HERFORD.

Hic inclinet se sacerdos ad altare junctis manibus dicendo:

T

ROM.

Sacerdos extendens et jungens manus, elevans ad cœlum oculos, et statim demittens, profunde inclinatus ante altare, manibus super eo positis, dicit:

E igitur, clementissime Pater, per Jesum Christum Filium tuum Dominum nostrum supplices rogamus ac petimus:

ignotum est. Auctam tamen fuisse, non semel sed sæpius, ex partibus additis intelligimus." De rebus ecc. cap. 22. Nor need we hesitate to accept the statement of pope Vigilius, who writes of the liturgy in his epistle to Eucherius, ex apostolica traditione succepimus;" or of a pope earlier even than Vigilius, "quis enim nesciat aut non advertat id, quod a principe apostolorum Petro Romanæ ecclesiæ traditum est, ac usque nunc custoditur, ab omnibus debere servari?" Innocent. epist. ad Decentium.

The whole canon of the mass was sometimes called Secretum: as, for example, in the third decree of the synod of York, 1195, which respects the correctness of the manuscripts used in the public services and begins: "Quia secretum missæ frequenter invenitur aut scriptorum falsitate, aut librorum vetustate corruptum, ita ut legi distincte non possit," &c. Wilkins, Conc. i. 501.

The title Canon as applied to this part of the service is as old certainly as at least the time of Gregory the great; who speaks of himself having directed the Lord's prayer to be said "mox post canonem." Mabillon, however, says that the term cannot be traced further back than the time of that pope: 'precem illam canonem primus, aut inter primos, absolute vocat Gregorius M." Mus. Ital. 2. p. xlviij. Strictly

I

SARUM.

BANGOR.

EBOR.

(Hic, Sarum et Bangor.) erigens se (sacerdos, Ebor.) osculetur altare a dextris sacrificii dicens:

the canon ends before the Lord's prayer; and in many manuscripts a different style of writing then begins again.

But it may not be improper to mention some other titles which have been given to this portion of the liturgy. "Precem vocat Innocentius I. in epist. ad Decentium: et Vigilius p. Profuturum, canonica precis textum." Gerbert, tom. i. p. 122. Again, the same author, p. 446, quoting Amalarius: "ab illo loco, ubi secretam dicit episcopus usque ad AGNUS DEI, totum illud vocat Augustinus Orationes." And Gavantus has collected several others. Regula ecclesiastica, from St. Ambrose. Legitimum, Optatus. Secretum, St. Basil. Ordo precum, Isidore. Actio and Regula, by Walafrid Strabo. (Thesaurus sacr. rit. tom. i. 105.)

To these I must not omit to add Lyndwood's explanation: "Licet quidam simplices sacerdotes intelligant canonem, quidquid est in secreto missæ: et stricte intelligendo canonem, puto quod Hostiensis dicit verum, est namque canon idem quod regula. Missa vero proprie dicitur eucharistiæ consecratio. Alia autem omnia, quæ vel sacerdos dicit vel chorus canit, gratiarum actiones sunt, vel certe obsecrationes. Unde canon missæ vere dicitur regula illa, per quam eucharistia consecratur: large tamen intelligendo canonem missæ juxta communem intellectum simplicium sacerdotum, denotat totum secretum missæ post præfationem." Lib. i. tit. 10, Ut archidiaconi, verb. Canon.

2 (Functis manibus.) In this the English uses agree, differing from what has been the rule of the Roman missal "manibus extensis." It would seem however that very anciently this last was the custom in some parts at least of this country also. For we read of St. Dunstan : "eo quippe inter sacrosancta missarum solemnia sacras manus extendente, et Deum Patrem omnipotentem, ut 'ecclesiam suam catholicam pacificare, custodire,' &c. interpellante, nivea columba de cœlo descendit." Vita S. Dunstani, cap. xxxij.

Micrologus says: "Notandum autem, per totum canonem Dominicæ passionis commemorationem potissimum actitari,

HERFORD.

ROM.

Hic osculetur altare, et eri- Osculatur altare:

gat se dicendo:

juxta Domini præceptum in evangelio: Hæc, quotiescunque feceritis, &c. Unde et ipse sacerdos per totum canonem in expansione manuum, non tam mentis devotionem, quam Christi extensionem in cruce designat, juxta illud: Expandi manus meas tota die." Cap. 16. So also Radulph. Tungr. prop. 23. But the later ritualists take a different view.

3 There is no doubt that for many centuries before the reformation the Church of England, according to her different uses, yet agreed in all of them with the rest of the western Church in this point: that the whole of the canon, from the Te igitur to the per omnia sæcula sæculorum, was said secreto, or submissa voce. It is a stupid error to suppose that by secreto is meant no utterance at all, or even what is commonly called mumbling: for there are many orders of the English Church (which I shall have occasion to cite presently) which prove that a distinct pronunciation was required of every word no less than in those parts of the liturgy which were repeated aloud. The present Rubrica generales prefixed to the Roman missal explain well this point: "Quæ vero secrete dicenda sunt, ita pronuntiet, ut et ipsemet se audiat, et a circumstantibus non audiatur." Tit. xvi. 2.

So the provincial constitution of Walter Reynold, in 1322: "Verba canonis, in his præsertim quæ ad sanctum sacramentum pertinent, plene, integre, et cum summa animi devotione proferantur. Non tamen sit ita morosus sacerdos in præmissis, quod fastidium ingerat auditoribus, et officium suum privet devotionis pinguedine: quia muscæ morientes perdunt suavitatem unguenti, id est, pinguedinem devotionis." Concil. tom. 2. p. 513. Lyndwood glosses thus: "Devotione. Ut scilicet mentis intentio firmiter applicetur ad Deum, et ad pronunciationem verborum. Intentio namque semper est necessaria, vel specialis, vel generalis: et non solum requiritur intentio consecrantis, sed etiam intentio istud sacramentum instituentis. Morosus, i.e. tardans. Auditoribus. Qui ut plurimum solent ex prolixitate orationis, vel alias officii divini anxiari; cum tamen brevis oratio, facta cum

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