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Majesty, the master of the rolls, and Mr. Attorney, | ment of his wards in England in due time.
who were appointed by the table to examine him, to ever preserve and prosper you.
God ever prosper you.

Your lordship's most obliged friend and faithful

Your Majesty's true friend and devoted servant,
March 17, 1617.


WE have sat once upon the commission of treasure to no ill purpose, as may appear by the account enclosed; wherein his Majesty will find no preposterous issue of treasure: Mr. Chancellor imagines well, Coke seeks and beats over, as well where it is not, as where it is; secretary Naunton forgets nothing. I will look to bow things to the true ends. God bless and prosper his Majesty and yourself.


Your lordship's most obliged friend and faithful servant, 25 July, 1617.



I PRAY your lordship to signify to his Majesty, that I thought it my duty to stay at the seal, a book of Sir Francis Steward's, and Sir James Auterlony, &c. of 2001. land in charge in fee-simple: my reasons, First, It is a perpetuity, and so much rent in diminution of revenue certain.


Secondly, The warrant, as is acknowledged, came only from my lord of Suffolk, and not from Mr. Chancellor. And yet my lord was wont to boast, that since he was treasurer, all commissions and contracts for sale of the king's lands were broken off and ceased.

CCIII. TO THE MARQUIS OF BUCKINGHAM. my_caution, and with my obedience.

I know not whether there was any prosecution against the lord Clifton, or whether it was prevented by the laying of violent hands upon himself, in the year ensuing. Stephens. Stephens's Second Collection, p. 80. I Ibid. Ibid. p. 82.

The advancement of this lady to the title of the countess of Buckingham, was, notwithstanding the reasons here alleged, so ill resented by the house of commons in 1626, that in article XI. of their impeachment of the duke her son, it was objected against him as one of his offences. Stephens.


FR. VERULAM, CANC. York-house, July 27, 1618.

18 Hen. VII. cap. 1.

By this and the preceding letter it appears, that as my lord chancellor thought it his duty to offer to the king his


I AM very glad to hear of the honour his Majesty intendeth to my noble lady your lordship's mother.}} This, amongst many other things, showeth in your lordship good nature, which is the root of all virtues, next religion. Besides, it doth sort well in states, when place and power do meet and stand not too far at distance.

For the passing of it by direction without bill signed, it cannot be in law. So is Mr. Attorney's opinion, and so is mine; and therefore there is presently a bill sent with an indorsement of passing it by immediate warrant, and this antedate.

For the antedate, I must present his Majesty with

Thirdly, The rate of the moneys paid by the gentlemen amounteth but to thirteen years' purchase; which is a plain gift of a good proportion of value.

If his Majesty, now informed, iterate his mandate, it is done, and I excused; but I could wish his Majesty would refer it to the commissioners of the treasury, how the gentlemen may be otherwise satisfied.

I received yesternight a brave account of the commission of the wards in Ireland, which this one year is advanced from 2001. per annum to 4000l. which

is twenty-fold multiplied. This I write for two CCV. TO THE MARQUIS OF BUCKINGHAM.‡‡ reasons. First, because I glory in it, because it was my work wholly; next, because his Majesty may take occasion by this to look better to the improve

For the statute tieth me from antedates; and indeed the mischief is infinite: for by that means the king may grant any land, &c. and take it away a month hence, and grant it another by an antedate.¶ And surely were it land or the like, I would not say absit, or your Majesty cannot do it, for a world; or, Your Majesty is sworn and I am sworn; or such brave phrases; but surely, I say, I would in humbleness represent it to his Majesty.**

But the case of honour differeth; for therein his Majesty's prerogative and declaration is absolute, and he may make him that is last to be first. And therefore upon his Majesty's signification of his pleasure upon the indorsement of the bill signed, I take it I may lawfully do it.

I am here rejoicing with my neighbours the townsmen of St. Albans, for this happy day, the fifth of August,†† 1618.

Your lordship's most obliged friend and faithful servant, Gorhambury.



I THANK your lordship for your last loving letter.

reasons against passing of a patent: yet if then the king, who was judge of the inconvenience, was pleased to command it, he was obliged to allow the same. But in those things which were contrary to law, as it is to be presumed, that after an humble representation thereof, no prince would exact, so no minister in such a case would yield an obedience. Stephens.

+ The fifth of August, being the anniversary of the king's deliverance from the earl of Gowry's conspiracy, was by some called the court holiday, and ridiculed as a fiction; though the truth thereof being delivered down by Archbishop Spotswood, and other good historians, I see no great reason to call it into question. Stephens.

Stephens's Second Collection, p. 83.

I now write to give the king an account of a patent I have stayed at the seal. It is of licence to give in mortmain eight hundred pound land, though it be of tenure in chief to Allen* that was the player, for an hospital.

I like well that Allen playeth the last act of his life so well; but if his Majesty give way thus to amortize his tenures, his courts of wards will decay; which I had well hoped should improve.

But that which moved me chiefly is, that his Majesty now lately did absolutely deny Sir Henry Savile for 2007. and Sir Edward Sandys for 100l. to the perpetuating of two lectures, the one in Oxford, the other in Cambridge, foundations of singular honour to his Majesty, the best learned of kings, and of which there is great want; whereas hospitals abound, and beggars abound never a whit the less.†

If his Majesty do like to pass the book at all; yet
if he would be pleased to abridge the 800l. to 500l.
and then give way to the other two books for the
university, it were a princely work. And I would
make an humble suit to the king, and desire your
lordship to join in it, that it might be so.
God ever
preserve and prosper you.

Your lordship's most obliged friend and faith-
ful servant,
York-house, Aug. 18, 1618.

I have written to my lord chamberlain, being chancellor of Oxford, to help in the business.


WHAT passed in your lordship's presence, your lordship can tell, touching the navy. The morrow following we concluded in approbation of the books, save in one point, touching the number convenient for manning the ships, wherein the number allowed by the commissioners had, in my judgment, a little of the merchant; for to measure by so many as were

That Allen the player, who founded an hospital at Dulwich in Surry, had been an excellent actor of the comical and serious part, will appear evident to any one that shall thoroughly consider the following epigram made by that admirable dramatic poet, Ben Jonson.


If Rome so great, and in her wisest age,
Fear'd not to boast the glories of her stage:
As skilful Roscius, and grave Esop, men
Yet crown'd with honours, as with riches then;
Who had no less a trumpet of their name,
Than Cicero, whose every breath was fame:
How can so great example die in me?
That, Allen, I should pause to publish thee;
Who both their graces in thyself hast more
Outstript, than they did all that went before:
And present worth in all dost so contract,
As others speak, but only thou dost act.
Wear this renown. 'Tis just that who did give
So many poets life, by one should live.

above dead pays, is no good argument. For the
abuse of dead pays is to be amended, and not the
necessary number abated.
In this his Majesty may
fall upon a middle proportion between that of the
commissioners and that of the officers.


LOOKING for matter of service, I have found out a suit for myself: and it is proper for me more than all men, because it is within the account of the hanaper. But I have made a law to myself, that I will never beg any thing which shall not bring gain to the king. Therefore my suit is, to farm the profits of the alienations, yielding a thousand pounds a CCVI. TO THE MARQUIS OF BUCKINGHAM. munibus annis, by a medium of seven years. year more to the king than hath been yielded comIf the

king be pleased to grant me this, it will a little have a new occasion to be, as I ever have been, and warm the honour he hath given me; and I shall shall be,

It were to be wished this observation did not hold true to this day: for though the foundations of hospitals are to be commended, which Sir Francis Bacon hath done both in this letter and other his writings; yet it shows that some more adequate remedy for supporting the poor, than what arises from these

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Your lordship's obliged friend and faithful servant, FR. VERULAM, CANC. York-house, October 9, 1618. charities, or even from the laws enacted for their relief, was then, and yet is to be desired. And as the defect thereof is no small reproach to the government of a country, happy in its natural products, and enriched by commerce; so it would be an act of the greatest humanity to provide for the poor, and that idleness and beggary, the successive nursery of rogues, might as far as possible be extirpated. Upon this occasion I cannot but take notice of a story which has been spread abroad to the defamation of Sir Francis Bacon, though upon no good ground, as far as I can judge, as if in the accomplishment of the foundation of the Charter-house hospital, begun by Mr. Sutton and carried on by his executors, Sir Francis, who was then the king's solicitor, had for some ill designs of gain to himself or others, endeavoured to have defeated the same. The fact was, that the heir at law supposing, notwithstanding what Mr. Sutton had done in procuring acts of parliament, and patents from the king, in order to establish this noble charity, that the greatest part of his estate was descended to him, it was argued on his behalf by the solicitor-general, by Mr. Henry Yelverton, and Mr. Walter, men of great reputation in those times: and whatever ill intentions some of the court might have, my request to the reader is, that before he pass any censure upon Sir Francis Bacon, relating hereunto, he would please to peruse his advice, printed in vol. i. p. 495, given to the king touching Mr. Sutton's estate. Stephens.

Stephens's Second Collection, p. 81.

§ Ibid. p. 85.

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THIS morning Mr. Attorney came to me, and desired of me the many writs of Ne exeat regnum against most of the Dutch merchants,† and withal let me understand that there was a discovery of an infinite transportation of gold and silver out of this realm by the said Dutch merchants, amounting to millions; and that Sir John Britain had made a book thereof, and presented the same to his Majesty; and farther, that his Majesty had directed him to prosecute the same; and had also given Sir Thomas Vavasor the forfeiture of such ten of them as he should choose.

Hereupon I thought it my duty, as in a matter of great weight, to signify to his Majesty by your lordship what I conceive.


The discovery I think very happy. For if it be true, it will be a great benefit to his Majesty : it will also content his people much, and it will demonstrate also that Scotland is not the leech, as some discoursers say, but the Netherlanders, that suck the realm of treasure. So that the thing is very good.

But two things I must represent to his Majesty; the first, that if I stay merchants from their trading by this writ, I must do it either ex officio, or by special warrant from his Majesty.

If ex officio, then I must have more than a bare surmise to grant the writ upon, so as I must be acquainted with the grounds, or at least appearance of proofs. If by special warrant, then I desire to receive the same. The other is, that I humbly beseech his Majesty that these royal boughs of forfeiture may not be vintaged or cropp'd by private suitors, considering his Majesty's state as it is, but that Sir Thomas Vavasor, or Sir John Britain, may have a bountiful and gracious reward for their discovery; but not the prime, or without stint.


In sum, I would wish his Majesty to refer the whole business, and carriage of the same for his honour and profit, to the commissioners of treasury; or because it is a legal forfeiture, to myself, Mr. Chancellor, Sir Edward Coke, and my lord chief justice of England: and by us his Majesty shall be assured to know the best course for his justice, honour, and profit, and that he may dispose what

Stephens's Second Collection, p. 86.

The affair of these Dutch merchants is in some measure represented in this letter, and those of October 9, and Nov. 9, 1619. But Mr. Stephens in his introduction, p. 45, 46, gives us by the assistance of some authentic papers, the following account of the affair: Upon the 19th of October, 1618, the attorney-general having applied to the lord chancellor for writs Ne exeat regnum, against these merchants, afterwards exhibited an information against about one hundred and eighty of them, for transporting beyond the seas vast quantities of gold and silver in money, plate, and bullion, since the beginning of king James I.'s reign. The attorney at first brought the cause to a hearing against about twenty of them, who were supposed the greatest offenders, and most able to make restitution. Their fines amounting in the whole to 150,000l. of which Mr. William Courteen, and two others, were condemned in 20,0007. each; the advice which the lord chancellor gave the king, not to grant away the fines of such ten of them as

God ever preserve and prosper
Your lordship's most obliged friend and faith-
ful servant,
York-house, Octob. 19, 1618.


I HAVE acquainted his Majesty with your letter, who giveth you thanks for your advice to communicate the business of the Dutchmen to the commissioners of the treasury, which his Majesty was before purposed to refer to them, as it concerns his treasure, for the carriage of it: and to your lordship and the rest named in your letter, for the relation it hath to the law. For the proposers of the suit, his Majesty intendeth only to reward their pains as may stand with his service and his princely disposition, but to preserve the main benefit himself: all that his Majesty would have your lordship to do for the present, is to take order about the writ of Ne exeant regnum; to advise with his learned counsel what course is to be taken, and if by a warrant from his Majesty, that your lordship send him a warrant to be signed, which shall be returned with all speed. Of other things his Majesty thinketh it will be time enough to speak at his return to London. In the mean time I rest

Your lordship's faithful friend and servant, G. BUCKINGHAM. Hinchenbroke, 21 Octob. 1618.



I HAVE this morning received the petty roll for the sheriffs. I received also the papers exhibited by Sir Miles Fleetwood, which I will use to his Majesty's best service, and thereupon give account to his Majesty when time serveth.

My care, which is not dormant touching his Majesty's service, especially that of treasure, which is now summa summarum, maketh me propound to his

Sir Thomas Vavasor the discoverer should choose, and which
it seems he had in a manner been promised, was a piece of
service worthy the place he enjoyed, and the trust he had with
the king. Upon the 12th of October, 1619, Mr. Courteen was
censured to pay 20007. more, and other smaller sums, for en-
deavouring to corrupt the king's evidence. And the 19th of
November following was appointed for the trial of between
twenty and thirty more; but by reason of some neglect or
mismanagement in the prosecution, which gave the court a
great deal of trouble, and the defendants some advantage, the
cause was not heard till the 7th of December, though most of
them were then found guilty. Of the large fines imposed upon
the delinquents, it is supposed that they paid but a third part;
for during the prosecution, the States-General did by a letter
desire the marquis of Buckingham to endeavour to moderate
the heat thereof, as Sir Noel Carson their ambassador did the
next day after sentence, to mitigate the severity
Stephens's Second Collection, p. 87. § Ibid. p. 88.

Majesty a matter, which, God is my witness, I do without contemplation of friend or end, but animo recto.

If Sir Edward Coke continue sick, or keep in, I fear his Majesty's service will languish too, in those things which touch upon law; as the calling in debts, recusants, alienations, defalcations, &c. And this is most certain, that in these new diligences, if the first beginning cool, all will go back to the old bias. Therefore it may please his Majesty to think of it, whether there will not be a kind of necessity to add my lord chief justice of England to the commissioners of treasure. This I move only to the king and your lordship, otherwise it is a thing ex non entibus. God preserve and prosper you.

Your lordship's most faithful servant,
From the Star-Chamber, 25 Nov. 1618.


THIS long book, which I send for his Majesty's signature, was upon a conference and consult yesternight (at which time I was assisted by the two chief justices, and attended by the surveyor, attorney, and receiver of the court of wards, Fleetwood) framed and allowed.

And for the profit that will arise, we see no cause to doubt but do conceive apparent likelihood, that it will redound much to your Majesty's profit, which


P. S. I forget not Tufton's cause. All things we esteem may be at the least 10,000l. by the year; stay, and precedents are in search. and therefore in a business of such benefit to your Majesty, it were good it were settled with all convenient speed, by all lawful means that may be

CCXI. TO THE MARQUIS OF BUCKINGHAM.* thought of, which, notwithstanding, we most humbly leave to your Majesty's highest wisdom.

Your Majesty's most humble and faithful servants,


It is long, because we all thought fit not to piece new instructions with old instructions, but to reduce both old and new into one body of instructions. do not see that of the articles, which are many, any could have been spared. They are plain, but they have a good property, that they will take fast hold. I may not trouble his Majesty with choosing some of them in particular, when all are good only I think fit to let his Majesty know of one, which is, that according to his own directions, the oath of making no private unlawful profit is now as well translated to the master and officers, that may take, as to the parties and suitors that may give.

It little becometh me to possess his Majesty that this will be to his Majesty's benefit ten thousands yearly, or fifteen thousands, or twenty thousands : for these rattles are fitter for mountebanks of service, than grave counsellors. But my advices, as far as I am able to discern, tend or extend but to thus much: this is his Majesty's surest and easiest way for his most good.

Sir Miles Fleetwood, who both now and heretofore hath done very good service in this, meriteth to be particularly from your lordship encouraged; which I beseech your lordship not to forget. God

ever prosper you.


MAY IT PLEASE YOUR MOST Excellent MAJESTY, ACCORDING to your Majesty's pleasure, signified to us by the lord marquis Buckingham, we have considered of the fitness and conveniency of the gold and silver thread business, as also the profit that may accrue unto your Majesty.

We are all of opinion that it is convenient that the same should be settled, having been brought hither at the great charge of your Majesty's now agents, and being a means to set many of your poor subjects on work; and to this purpose there was a former certificate to your Majesty from some of us with others.

Dec. 4. 1618.
Stephens's Second Collection, p. 89.

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IT MAY PLEASE YOUR MOST Excellent Majesty, I Do many times with gladness, and for a remedy of my other labours, revolve in my mind the great happiness which God, of his singular goodness, hath accumulated upon your Majesty every way; and how complete the same would be if the state of your means were once rectified, and well ordered: your people military and obedient, fit for war, used to peace; your church illightened with good preachers, as an heaven of stars; your judges learned, and learning from you, just, and just by your example; your nobility in a right distance between crown and people, no oppressors of the people, no overshadowers of the crown; your council full of tributes of care, faith, and freedom; your gentlemen and justices of peace willing to apply your royal mandates to the nature of their several counties, but ready to obey; your servants in awe of your wisdom, in hope Your lordship's most faithful bounden friend of your goodness; the fields growing every day, by

and servant,


the improvement and recovery of grounds, from the
desert to the garden; the city grown from wood to
brick; your sea-walls or pomarium of your island
+ Ibid. p. 90.


surveyed, and in edifying; your merchants embra- | well pleased with that account of your careful and
cing the whole compass of the world, east, west, speedy despatch of business, &c.
north, and south; the times give you peace, and yet
offer you opportunities of action abroad: and lastly,
your excellent royal issue entaileth these blessings
and favours of God to descend to all posterity. It
resteth, therefore, that God having done so great
things for your Majesty, and you for others, you
would do so much for yourself, as to go through,
according to your good beginnings, with the rectifying
and settling of your estate and means, which only
is wanting; hoc rebus defuit unum. I therefore,
whom only love and duty to your Majesty, and your
royal line, hath made a financier, do intend to pre-
sent unto your Majesty a perfect book of your estate,
like a perspective glass, to draw your estate nearer
to your sight; beseeching your Majesty to con-
ceive, that if I have not attained to do that that I
would do, in this which is not proper for me, in my
element, I shall make your Majesty amends in some
other thing, in which I am better bred.
God ever
preserve, &c.

Jan. 2, 1618.



IF I should use the count de Gondemar's action, I should first lay your last letter to my mouth in token of thanks, and then to my heart in token of contentment, and then to my forehead in token of a perpetual remembrance.

I send now to know how his Majesty doth after his remove, and to give you account that yesterday was a day of motions in the chancery. This day was a day of motions in the star-chamber, and it was my hap to clear the bar, that no man was left to move any thing, which my lords were pleased to note they never saw before. To-morrow is a sealing day; Thursday is the funeral day; so that I pray your lordship to direct me whether I shall attend his Majesty Friday or Saturday. Friday hath some reliques of business, and the commissioners of treasure have appointed to meet; but to see his Majesty, is to me above all.

I have set down de bene esse, Suffolk's cause, the third sitting next term; if the wind suffer the commission of Ireland to be sped. I ever more and

more rest

Your lordship's most obliged friend and faith-
ful servant,

This 11th May, 1619.

Yours, &c.
Greenwich, 13th May, 1619.

P. S. Your business had been done before this, but I knew not whether you would have the attorney or solicitor to draw it.



I ACQUAINTED his Majesty with your letter at the first opportunity after I received it, who was very Stephens's Second Collection, p. 93. † Ibid. p. 94.



I SHOWED your letter of thanks to his Majesty, who says there are too many in it for so small a favour, which he holdeth too little to encourage so well a deserving servant. For myself, I shall ever rejoice at the manifestation of his Majesty's favour towards you, and will contribute all that is in me to the increasing his good opinion; ever resting

Your lordship's faithful friend and servant,


AFTER my hearty commendations, being informed by the petition of one Thomas Porten, a poor Yorkshireman, of a heavy accident by fire, whereby his house, his wife, and a child, together with all his goods, were utterly burnt and consumed; which misfortune, the petitioner suggests with much eagerness, was occasioned by the wicked practices and conjurations of one John Clarkson of Rowington in the county of Warwick, and his daughter, persons of a wandering condition, affirming, for instance, that one Mr. Hailes of Warwick did take from the said Clarkson certain books of conjuration and witchcraft: that the truth of the matter may be rightly known, and that Clarkson and his daughter, if there be ground for it, may answer the law according to the merit of so heinous a fact, I have thought good to wish and desire you to send for Clarkson and his daughter, and as upon due examination you shall find cause, to take order for their forthcoming, and answering of the matter at the next assize for the county of York; and also to confer with Mr. Hailes, whether he took from the

FR. VERULAM, CANC. | said Clarkson any such book of conjuration, as the petitioner pretends he did, and to see them in safe custody. Whereupon I desire to be certified how you find the matter; and your doing thereupon. So not doubting of your special care and diligence herein, I bid you heartily farewell, and rest

Your very loving friend,

FR. VERULAM, CANC. York-house, 15 May, 1619.


§ Ibid.

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