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selves not to be unseen in that deep and unscrutable | centre of the court, which is her Majesty's mind, do not only toll the bell, but even ring out peals, as if your fortune were dead and buried, and as if there were no possibility of recovering her Majesty's favour; and as if the best of your condition were to live a private and retired life, out of want, out of peril and out of manifest disgrace; and so in this persuasion of their's include a persuasion to your lordship to frame and accommodate your actions and mind to that end: I fear, I say, that this untimely despair may in time bring forth a just despair, by causing your lordship to slacken and break off your wise, loyal, and seasonable endeavours and industry for redintegration to her Majesty's favour; in comparison whereof all other circumstances are but as atomi, or rather as a vacuum without any substance at all. Against this opinion it may please your lordship to consider of these reasons which I have collected, and to make judgment of them, neither out of the melancholy of your present fortune, nor out of the infusion of that which cometh to you by others' relation, which is subject to much tincture, but ex rebus ipsis, out of the nature of the persons and actions themselves, as the trustiest and least deceiving grounds of opinion. For though I am so unfortunate as to be a stranger to her Majesty's eye, and much more to her nature and manners; yet by that which is apparent, I do manifestly discern, that she hath that character of the divine nature and goodness, " quos amavit, amavit usque ad finem;" and where she hath a creature, she doth not deface nor defeat it; insomuch as, if I observe rightly in those persons whom heretofore she hath honoured with her special favour, she hath covered and remitted not only defects and ingratitudes in affection, but errors in state and service. Secondly, if I can spell and scholarlike put together the parts of her Majesty's proceedings now towards your lordship, I cannot but make this construction, that her Majesty in her royal intention never purposed to call your lordship's doings into public question; but only to have used a cloud without a shower, in censuring them by some temporary restraint only of liberty, and debarring from her presence. For, first, the handling the cause in the star-chamber, you not being called, was enforced by the violence of libelling and rumours, wherein the queen thought to have satisfied the world, and yet spared your lordship's appearance; and after, when that means which was intended for the quenching of malicious bruits, turned to kindle them, because it was said your lordship was condemned unheard, and your lordship's sister wrote that piquant letter, then her Majesty saw plainly, that these winds of rumours could not be commanded down without a handling of the cause, by making you a party, and admitting your defence. And to this purpose I do assure your lordship, that my brother Francis Bacon, who is too wise, I think, to be abused, and too honest to abuse; though he be more reserved in all particulars than is needful, yet in generality he hath ever constantly and with asseveration affirmed to me, that both those days, that of the star-chamber, and that at
my lord keeper's, were won from the queen merely upon necessity and point of honour, against her own inclination. Thirdly, in the last proceeding, I note three points, which are directly significant, that her Majesty did expressly forbear any point which was * irreparable, or might make your lordship in any degree uncapable of the return of her favour; or might fix any character indelible of disgrace upon you for she spared the public place of the starchamber, which spared ignominy; she limited the charge precisely not to touch upon any pretence of disloyalty; and no record remaineth to memory of the charge or sentence. Fourthly, the very distinction which was made in the sentence of sequestration from the places of service in state, and leaving to your lordship the place of master of the horse, doth, to my understanding, indicativè, point at this; that her Majesty meant to use your lordship's attendance in court, while the exercises of the other places stood suspended. Fifthly, I have heard, and your lordship knoweth better than I, that now, since you were in your own custody, her Majesty in verbo regio, and by his mouth, to whom she committeth her royal grants and decrees, hath assured your lordship she will forbid, and not suffer, your ruin. Sixthly, as I have heard her Majesty to be a prince of that magnanimity, that she will spare the service of the ablest subject or peer, when she shall be thought to stand in need of it; so she is of that policy, as she will not lose the service of a meaner than your lordship, where it shall depend merely upon her choice and will. Seventhly, I hold it for a principle, that generally those diseases are hardest to cure whereof the cause is obscure; and those easiest, whereof the cause is manifest: whereupon I conclude, that since it hath been your error in your courses towards her Majesty, which hath prejudiced you, that your reforming and conformity will restore you; so as you may be faber fortunæ proprie. Lastly, considering your lordship is removed from dealing in causes of state, and left only to a place of attendance; methinks the ambition of any man, who can endure no partners in state matters, may be so quenched, as they should not laboriously oppose themselves to your being in court: so as upon the whole matter, I can find neither in her Majesty's person, nor in your own person, nor in any third person, neither in former precedents, nor in your own case, any cause of dry and peremptory despair. Neither do I speak this so, but that, if her Majesty, out of her resolution, should design you to a private life, you should be as willing, upon her appointment, to go into the wilderness, as into the land of promise. Only I wish your lordship will not preoccupate despair, but put trust, next to God, in her Majesty's grace, and not to be wanting to yourself. I know your lordship may justly interpret, that this which I persuade, may have some reference to my particular, because I may truly say, Te stante, not virebo, for I am withered in myself, but manebo, or tenebo; I shall in some sort be, or hold out. But though your lordship's years and health may expect return of grace and fortune; yet your eclipse for a time is an ultimum vale to my *Irrecuperable, Cab.
fortune; and were it not that I desire and hope to see my brother established, by her Majesty's favour, as I think him well worthy, for that he hath done and suffered, it were time I did take that course, from which I dissuade your lordship. But now in the mean time, I cannot choose but perform these honest duties to you, to whom I have been so deeply bounden.
LVII. A LETTER FRAMED AS FROM THE
I THANK you for your kind and careful letter, It persuades me to that which I wish strongly, and hope for weakly; that is, possibility of restitution to her Majesty's favour; but your arguments that would cherish hope turn to despair. You say the queen never meant to call me to public censure, which showeth her goodness; but you see I passed under it, which showeth others' power. I believe most stedfastly her Majesty never intended to bring my cause to a sentence; and I believe as verily, that since that sentence she meant to restore me to attend upon her person. But they that could use occasions, which was not in me to let, and amplify occasions, and practise upon occasions, to represent to her Majesty a necessity to bring me to the one, can and will do the like to stop me from the other. You say, my errors were my prejudice, and therefore I can mend myself: it is true; but they that know that I can mend myself, and that if ever I recover the queen, that I will never lose her again; will
never suffer me to obtain interest in her favour. And
you say the queen never forsook utterly, where she
having no other pledge of my love, but communicate freely with you, for the ease of my heart and yours.
LVIII. A LETTER TO MR. SECRETARY CE-
IT MAY PLEASE YOUR HONOUR,
As one that wisheth you all increase of honour ; and as one that cannot leave to love the state, what interest soever I have, or may come to have in it; and as one that now this dead vacation time hath some leisure ad aliud agendum; I will presume to propound unto you that which though you cannot but see, yet I know not whether you apprehend and esteem it in so high a degree; that is, for the best action of importation to yourself, of sound honour and merit to her Majesty and this crown, without ventosity and popularity, that the riches of any occasion, or the tide of any opportunity, can possibly minister or offer: and that is the causes of Ireland, if they be taken by the right handle. For if the wound be not ripped up again, and come to a § recrudency by new foreign succours, I think that no physician will go on much with letting of blood, in declinatione morbi; but will intend to purge and corroborate. To which purpose I send you mine opinion, without labour of words, in the enclosed; and sure I am, that if you shall enter into the matter according to the vivacity of your own spirit, nothing can make unto you a more gainful return. For you shall make the queen's felicity complete, which now, as it is, is incomparable: and for yourself, you shall show yourself as good a patriot as you are thought a politic, and make the world perceive you have not less generous ends, than dexterous delivery of yourself towards your ends; and that you have as well true arts and grounds of government, as the facility and felicity of practice and negotiation; and that you are as well seen in the periods and tides of estates, as in your own circle and way: than the which, I suppose, nothing can be a better addition and accumulation of honour unto you. This, I hope, I may in privateness write, either as a kinsman, that discourse, without committing any absurdity. But may be bold; or as a scholar, that hath liberty of if it seem any error in me thus to intromit myself, I pray your honour to believe, I ever loved her Majesty and the state, and now love yourself; and there is never any vehement love without some absurdity, as the Spaniard well says: "desuario con la calentura." So desiring your honour's pardon, I ever continue.
CONSIDERATIONS TOUCHING THE QUEEN'S
THE reduction of that country, as well to civility
§ festered sense. Cab.
and justice, as to obedience and peace, which things, | by cutting off the opinion and expectation of foreign as affairs now stand, I hold to be inseparable, consisteth in four points:
succours; to which purpose this enterprise of Algiers, if it hold according to the advertisement, and if it be not wrapped up in the period of this summer, seemeth to be an opportunity cœlitus demissa. And to the same purpose nothing can be more fit than a treaty, or a shadow of a treaty of a peace with Spain, which methinks shall be in our power to fasten at least rumore tenus, to the deluding of as wise people as the Irish. Lastly, for this point; that which the ancients called "potestas facta redeundi ad sanitatem;" and which is but a mockery when the enemy is strong, or proud, but effectual in his declination; that is, a liberal proclamation of grace and pardon to such as shall submit, and come in within a time prefixed, and of some farther reward to such as shall bring others in; that one's sword may be sharpened by another's, is a matter of good experience, and now, I think, will come in time. And percase, though I wish the exclusions of such a pardon exceeding few, yet it will not be safe to continue some of them in their strength, but to translate them and their generations into England; and give them recompence and satisfaction here, for their possessions there, as the king of Spain did, by divers families of Portugal. To the effecting of all the points aforesaid, and likewise those which fall within the divisions following, nothing can be in priority, either of time or matter, better than the sending of some commission of countenance, ad res inspiciendas et componendas; for it will be a very significant demonstration of her Majesty's care of that kingdom; a credence to any that shall come in and submit; a bridle to any that shall have their fortunes there, and shall apply their propositions to private ends; and an evidence that her Majesty, after arms laid down, speedily pursueth a politic course, without neglect or respiration: and it hath been the wisdom of the best examples of government.
1. The extinguishing of the relicks of the war.
4. Plantations and buildings.
For the first; concerning the places and times, and particularities of farther prosecution, in fact I leave it to the opinion of men of war; only the difficulty is, to distinguish and discern the propositions, which shall be according to the ends of the state here, that is, final and summary towards the extirpation of the troubles, from those, which though they pretend public ends, yet may refer indeed to the more private and compendious ends of the council there or of the particular governors or captains. But still, as I touched in my letter, I do think much letting blood, in declinatione morbi, is against method of cure; and that it will but induce necessity, and exasperate despair; and percase discover the hollowness of that which is done already, which now blazeth to the best show. For laglia's and proscriptions of two or three of the principal rebels, they are, no doubt, jure gentium, lawful: in Italy usually practised upon the banditti; best in season when a side goeth down; and may do good in two kinds; the one, if they take effect; the other, in the distrust which may follow amongst the rebels themselves. But of all other points, to my understanding, the most effectual is, the well expressing or impressing the design of this state, upon that miserable and desolate kingdom; containing the same between these two lists or boundaries; the one, that the queen seeketh not an extirpation of that people, but a reduction; and that, now she hath chastised them by her royal power and arms, according to the necessity of the occasion, her Majesty taketh no pleasure in effusion of blood, or displanting of ancient generations. The other, that her Majesty's princely care is principally and intentionally bent upon the action of Ireland; and that she seeketh not so much the ease of charge, as the royal performance of the office of protection, and reclaim of those her subjects: and in a word, that the case is altered so far as may stand with the honour of the time past: which it is easy to reconcile, as in my last note I showed. And again, I do repeat, that if her Majesty's design be ex professo to reduce wild and barbarous people to civility and justice, as well as to reduce rebels to obedience, it makes weakness turn christianity, and conditions graces; and so hath a fineness in turning utility upon point of honour, which is agreeable to the humour of these times. And besides, if her Majesty shall suddenly abate the lists of her forces, and shall do nothing to countervail it in point of reputation, of a politic proceeding, I doubt things may too soon fall back into the state they were in. Next to this; adding reputation to the cause, by imprinting an opinion of her Majesty's care and intention upon this action, is the taking away of reputation from the contrary side, * Al. Taglaes.
Towards the recovery of the hearts of the people, there be but three things, in natura rerum.
2. Justice and protection.
3. Obligation and reward.
For religion, to speak first of piety, and then of policy, all divines do agree, that if consciences be to be enforced at all, wherein yet they differ, two things must precede their enforcement; the one, means of instruction; the other, time of operation; neither of which they have yet had. Besides, till they be more like reasonable men than they yet are, their society were rather scandalous to the true religion than otherwise; as pearls cast before swine: for till they be cleansed from their blood, incontinency, and theft, which are now not the lapses of particular persons, but the very laws of the nation, they are incompatible with religion reformed. For policy, there is no doubt but to wrestle with them now, is directly opposite to their reclaiming, and cannot but continue their alienation of mind from this government. Besides, one of the principal pretences, whereby the heads of the rebellion have prevailed both with the people, and with the foreigner, hath been the defence of the catholic religion: and it is
this that likewise hath made the foreigner recipro- | persuaded, if a penny in the pound which hath
been spent in pœna, for this kind of war is but pœna, a chastisement of rebels, without fruit or emolument to this state, had been spent in præmio, that is, in rewarding, things, had never grown to this extremity. But to speak forwards. The keeping of the principal Irish persons in terms of contentment, and without cause of particular complaint; and generally the carrying of an even course between the English and the Irish; whether it be in competition, or whether it be in controversy, as if they were one nation, without that same partial course which hath been held by the governors and counsellors there, that some have favoured the Irish, and some contrary, is one of the best medicines of that state. And as for other points of contentment, as the countenancing of their nobility as well in this court as there; the imparting of knighthood; the care of education of their children, and the like points of comfort and allurement; they are things which fall into every man's consideration.
For the extirpating of the seeds of troubles, I suppose the main roots are but three. The first, the ambition and absoluteness of the chief of the families and septs. The second, the licentious idleness of their kernes and soldiers, that lie upon the country, by cesses and such like oppressions. And the third, the barbarous laws, customs, their brehon laws, habits of apparel, their poets or heralds that enchant them in savage manners, and sundry other such dregs of barbarism and rebellion, which by a number of politic statutes of Ireland, meet to be put in execution, are already forbidden; unto which such additions may be made as the present time require th. But the deducing of this branch requireth a more particular notice of the state and manners there, than falls within my compass.
cally more plausible with the rebel. Therefore a toleration of religion, for a time, not definite, except it be in some principal towns and precincts, after the manner of some French edicts, seemeth to me to be a matter warrantable by religion, and in policy of absolute necessity. And the hesitation in this point, I think, hath been a great casting back of the affairs there. Neither if any English papist or recusant shall, for liberty of his conscience, transfer his person, family, and fortunes thither; do I hold it a matter of danger, but expedient to draw on undertaking, and to further population. Neither if Rome will cozen itself, by conceiving it may be some degree to the like toleration in England, do I hold it a matter of any moment; but rather a good mean to take off the fierceness and eagerness of the humour of Rome, and to stay further excommunications or interdictions for Ireland. But there would go hand in hand with this, some course of advancing religion indeed, where the people is capable thereof; as the sending over some good preachers, especially of that sort which are vehement and zealous persuaders, and not scholastical, to be resident in principal towns; endowing them with some stipends out of her Majesty's revenues, as her Majesty hath most religiously and graciously done in Lancashire: and the recontinuing and replenishing the college begun at Dublin, the placing of good men to be bishops in the sees there, and the taking care of the versions of Bibles and catechisms, and other books of instruction, into the Irish language; and the like religious courses, both for the honour of God, and for the avoiding of scandal and insatisfaction here, by the show of a toleration of religion in some parts there.
For justice the barbarism and desolation of the country considered, it is not possible they should find any sweetness at all of justice; if it shall be, which hath been the error of times past, formal, and fetched far off from the state; because it will require running up and down for process; and give occasion for polling and exactions by fees, and many other delays and charges. And therefore there must be an interim in which the justice must be only summary; the rather, because it is fit and safe for a time the country do participate of martial government; and therefore, I could wish in every principal town or place of habitation, there were a captain or governor; and a judge, such as recorders and learned stewards are here in corporations, who may have a prerogative commission to hear and determine secundum sanam discretionem; and as near as may be to the laws and customs of England; and that by bill or plaint, without original writ; reserving from their sentence matter of freehold and inheritance, to be determined by a superior judge itinerant; and both sentences, as well of the bailywick judge, as itinerant, to be reversed, if cause be, before the council of the province to be established there with fit instructions.
For obligation and reward; it is true, no doubt, which was anciently said, that a state is contained in two words, præmium and pœna; and I am
For plantations and buildings, I do find it strange that in the last plot for the population of Munster, there were limitations how much in demesne, and how much in farm, and how much in tenancy; again, how many buildings should be erected, how many Irish in mixture should be admitted, and other things foreseen almost to curiosity: but no restraint that they might not build sparsim at their pleasure; nor any condition that they should make places fortified and defensible: which omission was a strange neglect and secureness, to my understanding. So as for this last point of plantations and buildings, there be two considerations which I hold most material; the one for quickening, and the other for assuring. The first is, that choice be made of such persons for the government of towns and places, and such undertakers be procured, as be men gracious and well beloved, and are like to be well followed. Wherein for Munster, it may be, because it is not res integra; but that the former undertakers stand interessed, there will be some difficulty; but surely, in mine opinion, either by agreeing with them, or by overruling them with a parliament in Ireland, which in this course of a politic proceeding, infinite occasions will require speedily to be held, it will be fit to supply fit qualified persons for undertakers. The other, that it be
not left, as heretofore, to the pleasure of the undertakers and adventurers, where and how to build and plant; but that they do it according to a prescript or formulary. For first, the places, both maritime and inland, which are fittest for colonies or garrisons, as well for doubt of the foreigner, as for keeping the country in bridle, will be found, surveyed, and resolved upon and then that the patentees be tied to build in those places only, and to fortify as shall be thought convenient. And lastly, it followeth of course, in countries of new populations, to invite and provoke inhabitants by ample liberties and charters.
LIX. TO MY LORD OF CANTERBURY [DR. WHITGIFT.]*
IT MAY PLEASE YOUR GRACE,
I HAVE considered the objections, perused the statutes, and framed the alterations, which I send, still keeping myself within the privity of a letter, and form of narration; not entering into a form of argument or disputation: for, in my poor conceit, it is somewhat against the majesty of princes' actions, to make too curious and striving apologies, but rather to set them forth plainly, and so as there may appear a harmony and constancy in them, so that one part upholdeth another. And so I wish your Grace all prosperity. From my poor lodging, this, &c.
Your Grace's most dutiful pupil and servant.
LX. TO SIR THOMAS LUCY.+
THERE was no news better welcome to me this long time, than that of the good success of my kinsman; wherein if he be happy, he cannot be happy alone, it consisting of two parts. And I render you no less kind thanks for your aid and favour towards him, than if it had been for myself; assuring you that this bond of alliance shall on my part tie me to give all the tribute to your good fortune all upon occasions, that my poor strength can yield. I send you, so required, an abstract of the lands of inheritance; and one lease of great value, which my kinsman bringeth; with a note of the tenures, values, contents, and state, truly and perfectly drawn; whereby you may perceive the land is good land, and well countenanced by scope of acres, woods, and royal* Rawley's Resuscitatio.
ties; though the total of the rents be set down as it now goeth, without improvement: in which respect it may somewhat differ from your first note. Out of this, what he will assure in jointure, I leave it to his own kindness; for I love not to measure affection. To conclude, I doubt not your daughter might have married to a better living, but never to a better life; having chosen a gentleman bred to all honesty, virtue, and worth, with an estate convenient. And if my brother or myself were either thrivers, or fortunate in the queen's service, I would hope there should be left as great a house of the Cokes in this gentleman, as in your good friend Mr. AttorneyGeneral. But sure I am, if Scriptures fail not, it will have as much of God's blessing; and sufficiency: is ever the best feast, &c.
LXI. A LETTER OF RECOMMENDATION OF HIS SERVICE TO THE EARL OF NORTHUMBERLAND, A FEW DAYS BEFORE QUEEN ELIZABETH'S DEATH.
IT MAY PLEASE YOUR GOOD LORDSHIP,
As the time of sowing a seed is known, but the time of coming up and disclosing is casual, or according to the season; so I am witness to myself, that there hath been covered in my mind a long. time a seed of affection and zeal towards your lordship, sown by the estimation of your virtues, and your particular honours and favours to my brother deceased, and myself; which seed still springing, now bursteth forth into this profession. And to be plain with your lordship, it is very true, and no winds or noises of civil matters can blow this out of my head or heart, that your great capacity and love towards studies and contemplations of a higher and worthier nature, than popular, a nature rare in the world, and in a person of your lordship's quality almost singular, is to me a great and chief motive to draw my affection and admiration towards you. And therefore, good my lord, if I may be of any use to your lordship, by my head, tongue, or pen, means, or friends, I humbly pray you to hold me your own; and herewithal, not to do so much disadvantage to my good mind, nor partly to your own worth, as to conceive that this commendation of my humble service proceedeth out of any straits of my occasions, but merely out of an election, and indeed the fulness. of my heart. And so wishing your lordship all prosperity, I continue, &c. March 1608.