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I shall further cite the following from the chronicl of Gervase: relating to the reception of his pall b archbishop Hubert, A. D. 1193. "Archiepiscopu Cantuariam veniens ab episcopis Angliæ et convent Cantuariensi honorifice et in osculo pacis vij. idus No vembris susceptus est. Deinde alba indutus et cappa, se quente conventu, nudus pedes incedens, pallium susce pit per manum nuntii Cœlestini papæ. Quo redimitus pallio cum cæteris episcopalibus indumentis, inthroni zatus est, et missam celebravit." 16
In the collection of Wilkins are several forms of the oath anciently taken by the archbishops on receiving the pall:" and in the year 1293, is the following "Forma petitionis pallii. Postulat devota vestra filia ecclesia Christi Cantuar. concedi pallium de corpore beati Petri sumptum electo suo consecrato, ut habeat plenitudinem officii; et pro hoc instanter et fortiter supplicat sanctitati vestræ." In the same place is a "Forma traditionis pallii," differing from that in the office below: this is said to be taken from the registers
16 Script. X. tom. 1. p. 1586.
17 Concil. tom. 2. p. 199: tom. 3. p. 154. 647. See also, Anglia Sacra, tom. 1. p. 372. and Gibson, Codex. Juris. Ecc. p. 105. It is quite clear from what Ralph de Diceto says, of the nuncio, in describing the ceremony on the occasion of archbishop Hubert, that the oath frequently varied: "Qui veniens ante majus altare, triplici sacramento quod ab antiquis temporibus introductum est, adauctis quibusdam novis verborum formulis involvit archiepis
copum." Script.X. tom. 1. p.671.
The engagement entered into to visit the see of Rome personally or by deputy, within a certain number of years, was deferred often by leave from the pope : and, in some cases, the sovereign himself interfered, and in the form of a humble supplication, requested the time to be prolonged: this was backed by a similar missive directed to the cardinals for their interposition. See Rymer, Fœdera, tom. 2. pars 2. p. 84. and again, p. 127.
of Canterbury." Ad honorem Dei omnipotentis, et B. Mariæ virginis, et beatorum apostolorum Petri et Pauli, et domini papæ Cœlestini, et S. Romanæ ecclesiæ, necnon ecclesiæ tibi commissæ, tradimus tibi pallium de corpore Petri sumptum, plenitudinem scil. pontificalis officii; ut utaris eo infra ecclesiam tuam certis diebus, qui exprimuntur in privilegiis ab apos- tolica sede concessis."18
ROYAL AND EPISCOPAL RECEPTIONS.
THE next Order, edited in this volume, is that which was appointed to be used upon the occasion of solemnly receiving either at a city, or cathedral, or abbey, any sovereign, legate, cardinal, or bishop. The custom of the clergy of the place, at which such a personage
18 Concil. tom. 2. p. 199. I must refer the refer the reader to the letters of the pope, on the inthronization of Simon de Mepham, A. D. 1328," et de pallii receptione." Ibid. p. 544.
The frequent reference which the student will find, to the pall being "de corpore beati Petri," relates to the circumstance that they were not made (if I may so call it) at the high altar of the church of S. Peter, but at the altar over the supposed tomb of the apostle and the benediction being completed, the pall was left one night upon that altar. As to the doctrine of the plenitude of the episcopal office being conveyed by it, I extract the following important observations of Van
Espen. "Id tamen nequaquam hoc sensu accipiendum est, quasi ipsum pallium aliquam revera ordinis potestatem ipsi consecrato tribueret; cum sit merum externum aliquod ornamentum; sed quod ante illius receptionem ex jure mere positivo, seu consuetudine jam recepta, metropolitani nec suas functiones obire, nec nomen archiepiscopi assumere queant; quæ disciplina quo præcise tempore invaluerit, incertum est; videtur autem tempore Conc. viij. Ecumenici saltem in oriente fuisse nota: et ex oriente ad Latinam ecclesiam transiisse." Jus. Eccles. tom. 1. p. 171. Compare Ferraris. Prompta Bibl. verb. Archiepiscopus. art. iij.
was to arrive, to go forth in procession to meet him, and to conduct him to the church, is of very high antiquity, as may be seen by many accounts of it, to be found in the Acta Sanctorum, or in the collection of lives by Surius: and again, the well known reference made by S. Gregory Nazianzen to the reception of S. Athanasius, after his return from exile, or the procession with which S. Chrysostom met Epiphanius, in the succeeding century." 19
And, as of bishops, so also we find, in later times, many examples of legates, received with the due solemnities: I quote the words of Matthew Paris, relating the arrival of the legate Otho, whose constitutions afterwards published are so famous, and of such high authority. “ Occurrerunt ei episcopi et clerici famosi usque ad littus:-rex autem ei usque ad confinium maris occurrit; et inclinato ad genua ejus capite, usque ad interiora regui deduxit officiose. Et adventantes episcopi, cum abbatibus, et aliis ecclesiarum prælatis, eum cum omni honore et reverentia, cum processionibus et campanarum classico, receperunt.
# Sozomen. Hist. For. lib. 8. Eum ingredientem cap. xiv. Joannes occursu cleri totius honoravit." A mark of respect, of which, in this particular case, the bishop afterwards shewed himself scarcely worthy. I would add this illustration also from the life of Cæsar Arelatensis: "Ubi autem percrebuit hominem Dei reverti, jamque eum urbi propinquare, omnes utriusque sexus cum crucibus et cereis ei processere
obviam, psallentes, et ingressum
ejus opperientes." Apud Surium. Aug. xxvij.
20 Hist. Angl. p. 371. A. D. 1237. This is not the place for me to enter upon the history, and functions, and dignity, of the legates of the church of Rome; I shall merely remind the reader that the canonists make three distinctions of legates: viz. (to adopt the words of Van Espen) “Legati a latere vocantur legati cardinales: quia assumuntur de latere papæ.-Legati missi sunt,
I would give the following early example in the English church, of the reception of a bishop: the Historia Eliensis, speaking of S. Wulstan, says: "qualis denique vir iste apud Deum semper extiterit, circa vitæ finem evidenter apparuit, quodam enim tempore contigit eum hanc ecclesiam orationis causa visitare, cui fratres loci processionaliter cum magna ut decuit reverentia occurrerunt, cumque jam in ecclesiam fuisset deductus, et in capite processionis episcopali more baculo pastorali staret innixus; subito, etc." Nor does the reader probably forget the account given us by Bede, of Ethelbert's reception of S. Augustine in the open air, for fear of some magical influence: "at illi non dæmonica, sed divina virtute, præditi veniebant, crucem pro vexillo ferentes argenteam, et imaginem Domini Salvatoris in tabula depictam."
From about the twelfth century it was usual to receive all bishops, on their visitations and progresses through their dioceses, with ringing of bells: and there are frequent entries in ancient parish records of payments on that account. A foreign canon gives a just reason for this observance. "Mandamus, et statuimus, quod quotiescunque episcopi per civitates suas, et diœceses transierint, rectores, seu clerici ecclesiarum, qui sciverint, eos per suas parochias transire,
campanas pulsent, seu pulsari faciant, ita quod popuds are possit et exire, et genua flectere ad benedictonem suscipiendam." I must refer the reader to tae appendix 20 Dugdale's history of S. Paul's cathedril, for an Ordo ad recipiendum episcopum," accoring v the use of that church, but he does not state at what face.
There are several notices in the chronicles of royal recepcons. I extract one only; the place was S. Albar's in the time of Richard II. "Finitis vesperis cum processione sciemni obviam regi processum est ab abbate et conventa ad occidentale ostium monasterii, accepersque est honorifice cum pulsationibus campaTerrn, canique am debito quam devoto.” 25
ysis were not always so acceptable, it would seat, is they ought to have been: the same author tes as soon ader: Dum hæc aguntur, rex Angliæ er regina cum suis Boemiis abbathias regni circuunt
shares quibus santo tristior fuerit eorum adventus, quamo gravior, quia et accesserunt in excessivo numero, et non effere sed auferre venerunt.” 26
Bat I must not omit one of the latest examples which we haver before the reformation, after which