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Majesty a matter, which, God is my witness, I do without contemplation of friend or end, but animo


If Sir Edward Coke continue sick, or keep in, I fear his Majesty's service will languish too, in those things which touch upon law; as the calling in debts, recusants, alienations, defalcations, &c. And this is most certain, that in these new diligences, if the first beginning cool, all will go back to the old bias. Therefore it may please his Majesty to think of it, whether there will not be a kind of necessity to add my lord chief justice of England to the commissioners of treasure. This I move only to the king and your lordship, otherwise it is a thing ex non entibus. God preserve and prosper you.

Your lordship's most faithful servant,

FR. VERULAM, CANC. From the Star-Chamber, 25 Nov. 1618.


MAY IT PLEASE YOUR MOST EXCellent Majesty, ACCORDING to your Majesty's pleasure, signified to us by the lord marquis Buckingham, we have considered of the fitness and conveniency of the gold and silver thread business, as also the profit that may accrue unto your Majesty.

We are all of opinion that it is convenient that the same should be settled, having been brought hither at the great charge of your Majesty's now agents, and being a means to set many of your poor subjects on work; and to this purpose there was a former certificate to your Majesty from some of us with others.

And for the profit that will arise, we see no cause to doubt: but do conceive apparent likelihood, that it will redound much to your Majesty's profit, which

P. S. I forget not Tufton's cause. All things we esteem may be at the least 10,000. by the year; stay, and precedents are in search.

and therefore in a business of such benefit to your Majesty, it were good it were settled with all convenient speed, by all lawful means that may be

CCXI. TO THE MARQUIS OF BUCKINGHAM.* thought of, which, notwithstanding, we most humbly


THIS long book, which I send for his Majesty's signature, was upon a conference and consult yesternight (at which time I was assisted by the two chief justices, and attended by the surveyor, attorney, and receiver of the court of wards, Fleetwood) framed and allowed.

It is long, because we all thought fit not to piece new instructions with old instructions, but to reduce both old and new into one body of instructions. I do not see that of the articles, which are many, any could have been spared. They are plain, but they have a good property, that they will take fast hold. I may not trouble his Majesty with choosing some of them in particular, when all are good: only I hink fit to let his Majesty know of one, which is, that according to his own directions, the oath of making no private unlawful profit is now as well translated to the master and officers, that may take, as to the parties and suitors that may give.

It little becometh me to possess his Majesty that this will be to his Majesty's benefit ten thousands yearly, or fifteen thousands, or twenty thousands : for these rattles are fitter for mountebanks of service, than grave counsellors. But my advices, as far as I am able to discern, tend or extend but to thus much: this is his Majesty's surest and easiest way for his most good.

leave to your Majesty's highest wisdom.

Your Majesty's most humble and faithful servants,


H. MONTAGU. HENRY YELVERTON. 4 Oct. 1618. The marquis of Buckingham writes from Theobald's to the lord chancellor, that the king being desirous to be satisfied of the gold and silver thread business, would have his lordship consult the lord chief justice, and the attorney and solicitor-general therein.


IT MAY PLEASE YOUR MOST EXCELLENT MAJESTY, I Do many times with gladness, and for a remedy of my other labours, revolve in my mind the great happiness which God, of his singular goodness, hath accumulated upon your Majesty every way; and how complete the same would be if the state of your means were once rectified, and well ordered: your people military and obedient, fit for war, used to peace; your church illightened with good preachers, as an heaven of stars; your judges learned, and learning from you, just, and just by your example; your nobility in a right distance between crown and people, no oppressors of the people, no overshadowers of the crown; your council full of tributes of care, faith, and freedom; your gentlemen and justices of peace willing to apply your royal mandates to the nature of their several counties, but ready to obey; your servants in awe of your wisdom, in hope Your lordship's most faithful bounden friend of your goodness; the fields growing every day, by

Sir Miles Fleetwood, who both now and heretofore hath done very good service in this, meriteth to be particularly from your lordship encouraged; which I beseech your lordship not to forget. God ever prosper you.

and servant,


Dec. 4. 1618.

• Stephens's Second Collection, p. 89.

the improvement and recovery of grounds, from the desert to the garden; the city grown from wood to brick; your sea-walls or pomarium of your island Ibid.

+ Ibid. p. 90.


surveyed, and in edifying; your merchants embra-
cing the whole compass of the world, east, west,
north, and south; the times give you peace, and yet
offer you opportunities of action abroad and lastly,
your excellent royal issue entaileth these blessings
and favours of God to descend to all posterity.
resteth, therefore, that God having done so great
things for your Majesty, and you for others, you
would do so much for yourself, as to go through,
according to your good beginnings, with the rectifying
and settling of your estate and means, which only
is wanting; hoc rebus defuit unum. I therefore,
whom only love and duty to your Majesty, and your
royal line, hath made a financier, do intend to pre-
sent unto your Majesty a perfect book of your estate,
like a perspective glass, to draw your estate nearer
to your sight; beseeching your Majesty to con-
ceive, that if I have not attained to do that that I
would do, in this which is not proper for me, in my
element, I shall make your Majesty amends in some
other thing, in which I am better bred.
God ever
preserve, &c.

Jan. 2, 1618.

well pleased with that account of your careful and speedy despatch of business, &c.

Yours, &c.


Greenwich, 13th May, 1619.

P. S. Your business had been done before this, but I knew not whether you would have the attorney or solicitor to draw it.



I SHOWED your letter of thanks to his Majesty, who says there are too many in it for so small a favour, which he holdeth too little to encourage so well a deserving servant. For myself, I shall ever rejoice at the manifestation of his Majesty's favour towards you, and will contribute all that is in me to the increasing his good opinion; ever resting

Your lordship's faithful friend and servant,



IF I should use the count de Gondemar's action, I should first lay your last letter to my mouth in token of thanks, and then to my heart in token of contentment, and then to my forehead in token of a perpetual remembrance.

I send now to know how his Majesty doth after his remove, and to give you account that yesterday was a day of motions in the chancery. This day was a day of motions in the star-chamber, and it was my hap to clear the bar, that no man was left to move any thing, which my lords were pleased to note they never saw before. To-morrow is a sealing day; Thursday is the funeral day; so that I pray your lordship to direct me whether I shall attend his Majesty Friday or Saturday. Friday hath some reliques of business, and the commissioners of treasure have appointed to meet; but to see his Majesty, is to me above all.


AFTER my hearty commendations, being informed by the petition of one Thomas Porten, a poor Yorkshireman, of a heavy accident by fire, whereby his house, his wife, and a child, together with all his goods, were utterly burnt and consumed; which misfortune, the petitioner suggests with much eagerness, was occasioned by the wicked practices and conjurations of one John Clarkson of Rowington in the county of Warwick, and his daughter, persons of a wandering condition, affirming, for instance, that one Mr. Hailes of Warwick did take from the said Clarkson certain books of conjuration and witchcraft: that the truth of the matter may be rightly known, and that Clarkson and his daughter, if there be ground for it, may answer the law according to the merit of so heinous a fact, I have thought good to wish and desire you to send for Clarkson and his daughter, and as upon due examination you shall find cause, to take order for their forthcoming, and answering of the matter at the Your lordship's most obliged friend and faith- next assize for the county of York; and also to ful servant,

I have set down de bene esse, Suffolk's cause, the third sitting next term; if the wind suffer the commission of Ireland to be sped. I ever more and

more rest

This 11th May, 1619.

confer with Mr. Hailes, whether he took from the

FR. VERULAM, CANC. said Clarkson any such book of conjuration, as the



I ACQUAINTED his Majesty with your letter at the first opportunity after I received it, who was very

* Stephens's Second Collection, p. 93. † Ibid. p. 91.

petitioner pretends he did, and to see them in safe
custody. Whereupon I desire to be certified how
you find the matter; and your doing thereupon. So
not doubting of your special care and diligence
herein, I bid you heartily farewell, and rest
Your very loving friend,

York-house, 15 May, 1619.

§ Ibid.

ship, that I may now let your lordship understand

CCXVIII. TO THE MARQUIS OF BUCKING- his Majesty's good conceit and acceptation of your



I SEND his Majesty a volume of my lord of Bangor's and my lord Sheffield, whereof I spake when I left his Majesty at Theobald's. His Majesty may be pleased, at his own good time and pleasure, to cast his eye upon it. I purpose at my coming to London to confer with the chief justice as his Majesty appointed: and to put the business of the pursevants in a way, which I think will be best by a commission of oyer and terminer; for the starchamber, without confession, is long seas. I should advise that this point of the pursevants were not single, but that it be coupled in the commission with the offences of keepers of prisons hereabouts: it hath a great affinity; for pursevants are but ambulatory keepers, and it works upon the same party, of the papists; and it is that wherein many of his Majesty's and the council's severe charges have been hitherto unfruitful; and it doth a great deal of mischief. I have some other reasons for it. But of this it will be fittest to advertise more particularly, what I have resolved of on advice, upon conference with the chief justice. I am wonderful glad to hear of the king's good health. God preserve his Majesty and your lordship. I ever rest

service, upon your discourse with him at Windsor,
which though I heard not myself, yet I heard his
Majesty much commend it both for the method and
the affection you showed therein to his affairs, in
such earnest manner, as if you made it your only
study and care to advance his Majesty's service.
And so I rest

Your lordship's faithful friend and servant,

Wanstead, 9 Sept. 1619.



I THINK it my duty to let his Majesty know what find in this cause of the ore tenus. For as his Majesty hath good experience, that when his business comes upon the stage, I carry it with strength and resolution; so in the proceedings I love to be wary and considerate.

I wrote to your lordship by my last, that I hoped by the care I had taken, the business would go well, but without that care I was sure it would not go well. This I meant because I had had conference with the two chief justices, Sir Edward Coke being

Your lordship's most obliged friend and faith- present, and handled the matter so, that not without much ado I left both the chief justices firm to the cause and satisfied.

ful servant,

FR. VERULAM, CANC. Gorhambury, this last of July, 1619.



YOUR lordship hath sent so good news to his Majesty, that I could have wished you had been the reporter of it yourself; but seeing you came not, I cannot but give you thanks for employing me in the delivering of that which pleased his Majesty so well, whereof he will put your lordship in mind, when he seeeth you. I am glad we are come so near together, and hoping to see you at Windsor, I rest Your lordship's faithful friend and servant, G. BUCKINGHAM.

29 Aug. 1619.


MY HONOUrable lord,

As I was reading your lordship's letter, his Majesty came, and took it of my hands, when he knew from whom it came, before I could read the paper enclosed and told me that you had done like a wise counsellor first setting down the state of the question, and then propounding the difficulties, the rest being to be done in its own time.

I am glad of this occasion of writing to your lord• Stephens's Second Collection, p. 95. + Ibid. p. 96.

But calling to mind that in the main business, notwithstanding I and the chief justices went one way, yet the day was not good, and I should be loth to see more of such days, I am not without some apprehension. For though we have Sir Edward Coke earnest and forward, insomuch as he advised the ore tenus, before I knew it at Wanstead, and now bound the Dutchmen over to the star-chamber, before I was made privy; unto both which proceedings I did nevertheless give approbation; yet if there should be either the major part of the votes the other way, or any main distraction, though we bear it through, I should think it a matter full of inconvenience. But that which gives me most to think, is the carriage of Mr. Attorney, which sorteth neither with the business, nor with himself: for, as I hear from divers, and partly perceive, he is fallen from earnest to be cool and faint: which weakness, if it should make the like alteration at the bar, it might overthrow the cause. All the remedy which is in my power, is by the advice of the judges to draw some other of the learned counsel to his help; which he, I know, is unwilling with, but that is all one.

This I thought it necessary to write, lest the king should think me asleep, and because I know that his Majesty's judgment is far better than mine. But I for my part mean to go on roundly; and so I ever rest

Your lordship's most obliged friend and faithful

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was before us in course of justice: unto which, being once propounded by me, all the lords and the rest una voce assented. I would not so much as ask the question, whether, though we proceeded, I should send the letter to his Majesty, because I would not straiten his Majesty in any thing.

If the king in his great wisdom should any ways | proceeding, nor to move his Majesty in that which incline to have the ore tenus put off, then the way were to command that the matter of the ore tenus should be given in evidence, by way of aggravation in the main cause. And it is true, that if this precursory matter goeth well, it giveth great entrance into the main cause; if ill, contrariwise, it will do hurt and disadvantage to the main.



THE news of this victory hath so well pleased his Majesty, that he giveth thanks to all; and I among the rest, who had no other part but the delivering of your letter, had my part of his good acceptation, which he would have rewarded after the Roman fashion with every man a garland, if it had been now in use; but after the fashion of his gracious goodness, he giveth your lordship thanks: and would have you deliver the like in his Majesty's name to Sir Edward Coke, and the judges. Your news which came the first, gave his Majesty a very good breakfast, and I hope his health will be the better after it.

Your lordship's faithful friend and servant,

14 Oct. 1619.

This letter was indorsed,

The evidence went well, I will not say I sometime holp it, as far as was fit for a judge; and at the rising of the court, I moved their lordships openly, whether they would not continue this cause from day to day till it were ended; which they thought not fit, in regard of the general justice which would be delayed in all courts. Yet afterwards within I prevailed so far, as we have appointed to sit Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday, and to sit by eight of the clock, and so to despatch it before the king come, if we can. God preserve and prosper you. I ever rest

Your lordship's most obliged friend and faithful servant, FR. VERULAM, CANC. This 22 October, Friday at 4 of the clock, 1619.


I HAVE received your letters by both your servants, and have acquainted his Majesty with them,

Thanks on the success in the ore tenus against the who is exceedingly pleased with the course you have



MY VERY Good Lord,


THESE things which I write now and heretofore in this cause, I do not write so as any can take knowledge that I write; but I despatch things ex officio here, and yet think it fit inwardly to advertise the king what doth occur. And I do assure your lordship, that if I did serve any king whom I did not think far away wiser than myself, I would not write in the midst of business, but go on of myself. This morning, notwithstanding my speech yesterday with the duke,‡ he delivered this letter enclosed, and I having cleared the room of all save the court and learned counsel, whom I required to stay, letter was read a little before our hour of sitting. When it was read, Mr. Attorney began to move, that my lord should not acknowledge his offences as he conceived he had committed them, but as they were charged; and some of the lords speaking to that point, I thought fit to interrupt and divert that kind of question; and said, before we considered of the extent of my lord's submission, we were first to consider of the extent of our own duty and power; for that I conceived it was neither fit for us to stay * Stephens's Second Collection, p. 99. + Ibid. + Of Lenox.

held in the earl of Suffolk's business, and holdeth himself so much the more beholden to you, because you sent the letter of your own motion, without order or consent of the lords, whereby his Majesty is not tied to an answer. His Majesty hath understood by many, how worthily your lordship hath carried yourself both in this and the Dutch business: for which he hath commanded me to give you thanks in his name, and seeth your care to be so great in all things that concern his service, that he cannot but much rejoice in the trust of such a servant, which is no less comfort to

Your lordship's faithful friend and servant,

Royston, 23 Oct. 1619.

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Edward Coke did his part, I have not heard him do | be omnibus omnia, as St. Paul saith, to set forward better, and began with a fine of 100,000!. but the his Majesty's service. judges first, and most of the rest, reduced it as before. I do not dislike that things passed moderately; and, all things considered, it is not amiss, and might easily have been worse.

There was much speaking of interceding for the❘ king's mercy which, in my opinion, was not so proper for a sentence. I said, in conclusion, that mercy was to come ex mero motu, and so left it: I took some other occasion pertinent to do the king honour, by showing how happy he was in all other parts of his government, save only in the manage of his treasure by his officers.

I have sent the king a new bill for Sussex; for my lord of Nottingham's certificate was true, and I told the judges of it before; but they neglected it. I conceive the first man, which is newly set down, is the fittest. God ever preserve and prosper you.

I discern a kind of inclination to take hold of all accidents to put off the cause, whereunto neither I shall give way, nor I hope his Majesty; to-morrow, if cause be, I shall write more, but I hope all shall be well. I ever rest

Your lordship's most obliged friend and faith-
ful servant,
Friday night, Nov. 19, 1619.



I HAVE Conferred with Sir Lionel Cranfield, ac

Your lordship's most obliged friend and faith-cording to his Majesty's special commandment,

ful servant,

Nov. 13, 1619.




I Do not love to interlope by writing in the midst of business; but because his Majesty commanded me to acquaint him with any occurrence which might cross the way, I have thought fit to let his Majesty know what hath passed this day.

This day, which was the day set down, the great cause of the Dutchmen was entered into. The pleading being opened, and the case stated by the counsel; the counsel of the defendants made a motion to have certain examinations taken concerning the old defendants suppressed, because they were taken since the last hearing.

I set the business in a good way, and showed they were but supplemental, and that at the last hearing there were some things extrajudicial alleged ad infirmandum conscientiam judicis, and therefore there was more reason these should be used ad informandum conscientiam judicis, and that there was order for it. The order was read, and approved both by the court, and the defendants' own counsel; but it was alleged, that the order was not entered time enough, whereby the defendants might likewise examine wherein certainly there was some slip or forgetfulness in Mr. Attorney or Brittain that fol

touching two points of value, for the advancement, the one present, the other speedy, of his Majesty's


The first is of the currants, to restore the imposition of five shillings sixpence, laid in the late queen's time, and drawn down unduly, to serve private turns, to three shillings four pence; which will amount to above three thousand pounds yearly increase.

The other is of the tobacco, for which there is offered 2000. increase yearly, to begin at Michaelmas next, as it now is, and 30007. increase, if the plantations of tobacco here within land be restrained. I approve in mine own judgment both propositions, with these cautions: That for the first the farmers of the currants do by instrument under their seals relinquish to the king all their claim thereto by any general words of their patent. And for the second, that the bargain be concluded and made before the proclamation go forth; wherein perhaps there will occur some doubt in law, because it restraineth the subject in the employment of his freehold at his liberty. But being so many ways pro bono publico, I think it good enough.

His Majesty may therefore be pleased to write his letter to the commissioners of the treasury, signifying his Majesty's pleasure directly in both points to have them done, and leaving to us the consideration de modo. God ever prosper you. I rest

Your lordship's most obliged friend and faithful

Nov. 22, 1619.

lowed it, which I wish had been otherwise; yet it CCXXVIII. TO THE MARQUIS OF BUCKINGwent fair out of the court.

But after dinner my lords were troubled about it, and after much dispute we have agreed to confer silently and sine strepitu to-morrow, and set all straight, calling the judges, and the learned counsel, with whom I have spoken this evening, I think, to good purpose. For in good faith, I am fain to Stephens's Second Collection, p. 103.

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