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yet lest we should err, we thought good to send it to his Majesty. It is to be returned with speed, or else there will be no day in court to make it. God bless and prosper you. I rest

Your lordship's most obliged friend and faithful servant,


28 Nov. 1619.



I HAVE acquainted his Majesty with your lordship's letter, and with the submission you sent drawn for Sir Thomas Lake, which his Majesty liketh well; and because he served him in so honourable a place, is graciously pleased that he maketh submission in writing, so that my lady of Exeter be contented and the lords, whom his Majesty would have you acquaint therewith. And so I rest

Your lordship's faithful friend and servant,

Newmarket, 29 Nov. 1619.


I shall write not so good news as I would, but better than I expected.

I perceive the old defendants will be censured, as well as the new, which was the gole, and I am persuaded the king will have a great deal of honour of the cause. Their fines will be moderate, but far from contemptible. The attorney did very well to-day; I perceive he is a better pleader than a director, and more eloquent than considerate.

Little thinks the king what ado I have here, but I am sure I acquit my trust. To-morrow I will write particularly. God ever preserve you.

Your lordship's most obliged friend and
faithful servant,

The marquis of Buckingham writes that he had acquainted his Majesty with this letter, who commanded him to give the lord chancellor thanks for his speed in advertising those things that pass, and for the great care he ever seeth his lordship has in his service.

FR. VERULAM, CANC. Tuesday afternoon, this 7th Dec. 1619. * Stephen's Second Collection, p. 106.



His Majesty having seen in this great business your exceeding care and diligence in his service by the effect which hath followed thereupon, hath commanded me to give you many thanks in his name, and to tell you that he seeth you play the part of all in all, &c.

† Ibid.


To keep form, I have written immediately to his Majesty of justice Croke's death, and send your


WE sentence to-morrow, but I write to-day, be- lordship the letter open, wishing time were not lost. cause I would not leave the king in suspense. God preserve and prosper you.

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We met amongst ourselves to-day, which I find was necessary, more than convenient. I gave aim that the meeting was not to give a privy verdict, or to determine what was a good proof or not a good proof, nor who was guilty or not guilty, but only CCXXXIII. TO THE MARQUIS OF BUCKINGto think of some fit proportion of the fines, that there mought be less distraction in the sentence, in a cause so scattered. Some would have entered into the matter itself, but I made it good, and kept them from it.


Your lordship's ever,

24 Jan. 1619.


10 Feb. 1619.
Ibid. p. 107.


I DOUBT not but Sir Giles Montpesson advertiseth your lordship how our revenue business proceeds. I would his Majesty had rested upon the first names; for the additionals, specially the exchequer man, doth not only weaken the matter, but weakeneth my forces in it, he being thought to have been brought in across. But I go on, and hope good service will be done.

For the commissions to be published in the starchamber, for which it pleaseth his Majesty to give me special thanks, I will have special care of them in time. God ever prosper you.

Your lordship's most obliged friend and faithful servant,


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MAY IT PLEASE YOUR MOST EXCELLENT MAJESTY, ACCORDING to your commandment, we met together yesterday at Whitehall, and there consulted what course were fittest to be taken now in this business of your Majesty's attorney-general, both for the satisfying your own honour, as also for calling in the late exorbitant charter of the city; which are the two ends, as we conceive, that your Majesty proposed unto yourself.

To effect both which, we humbly presume to present thus much unto your Majesty as our opinion. First, that an information be put into the star-chamber, as we formerly advised, against your attorney as delinquent, against the mayor, &c. as interested, and against the recorder also, mixtly with some touch of charge.

That the submission by letter offered by Mr. Attorney is no way satisfactory for your Majesty's honour; but is to be of record by way of answer, and deduced to more particulars.

That any submission or surrender of the patents by the city should be also of record in their answer; and no other can be received with your Majesty's honour, but by answer in court: the same to come merely of themselves, without any motion on your Majesty's behalf directly or indirectly; which being done in this form, it will be afterwards in your Majesty's choice and pleasure to use mercy, and to suspend any farther proceedings against your attorney.

That it is of necessity as well for the putting in of this information, as for your Majesty's other urgent and public services in that and other courts, to have a sequestration presently of your attorney, and a provisional commission to some other, during your Majesty's pleasure, to execute that charge. For both which, instruments legal shall be provided as soon as your Majesty's pleasure is known. To which we humbly and dutifully submit our advice and opinion, beseeching God to bless your Majesty's sacred person with continuance and increase of much

health and happiness: wherewith, humbly kissing

your royal hands, we rest

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cery for setting down of causes. And because the gentleman telleth me, the king thought my certificate a little doubtful; he desired me to write to your lordship, touching my approbation more plainly. It is true, that I conceive it to be a good business, and will be for the service of the court, and ease of the subject; I will look it shall be accompanied with good cautions.


We ruffle over business here in council apace, I think to reasonable good purpose. By my next I will write of some fit particulars. I ever rest

Your most obliged friend and faithful servant,

June 21, 1620.



THE tobacco business is well settled in all points. For the coals, they that brought the offer to secretary Calvert, do very basely shrink from their words; but we are casting about to piece it and perfect it. The two goose-quills Maxwell and Alured have been pulled, and they have made submissions in that kind which the board thought fit: for we would not do them the honour to require a recantation of their opinion, but an acknowledgment of their presump


His Majesty doth very wisely, not showing much care or regard to it, yet really to suppress their licentious course of talking and writing. My old lord Burghley was wont to say, that the Frenchman when he hath talked, he hath done; but the Englishman when he hath talked, he begins. It evaporateth malice and discontent in the one, and And therefore upon some kindleth it in the other. fit occasion I wish a more public example. The king's state, if I should now die and were opened, would be found at my heart, as queen Mary said of Calais; we find additionals still, but the consumplution, passing by at once all impediments and less tion goeth on. I pray God give his Majesty resorespects, to do that which may help it, before it be irremediable. God ever preserve and prosper your lordship.

Your lordship's most obliged friend and faithful servant,


23 July, 1620.

I have stayed the thousand pounds set upon Englefield for his Majesty, and given order for levying it.



ONE gave me a very good precept for the stone; that I should think of it most when I feel it least. Ibid. P. 112.

Ibid. p. 111.

This I apply to the king's business, which surely I revolve most when I am least in action; whereof at my attendance I will give his Majesty such account as can proceed from my poor and mean abilities, which as his Majesty out of grace may think to be more than they are, so I out of desire may think sometime they can effect more than they can. But still it must be remembered, that the stringing of the harp, nor the tuning of it, will not serve, except it be well played on from time to time.

If his Majesty's business or commandments require it, I will attend him at Windsor, though I would be glad to be spared, because quick airs at this time of the year do affect me. At London, and so at Theobald's and Hampton-Court, I will not fail, God willing, to wait upon his Majesty. Meanwhile I am exceeding glad to hear his Majesty hath been lusty and well this progress. Thus, much desiring to see your lordship, cujus amor tantum mihi crescit in horas,' as the poet saith, I ever remain

Your lordship's most obliged friend and faithful servant, FR. VERULAM, CANC. Gorhambury, this 30th of Aug. 1620.

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Secretary Naunton this day brought me your pleasure in certain notes; that I should advise with the two chief justices, old parliament men, and Sir Edward Coke, who is also their senior in that school, and Sir Randall Crewe the last speaker, and such other judges as we should think fit, touching that which mought in true policy, without packing or degenerate arts, prepare to a parliament, in case your Majesty should resolve of one to be held; and withal he signified to me some particular points, which your Majesty very wisely had deduced.

All your Majesty's business is super cor meum, for I lay it to heart, but this is a business secundum cor meum; and yet, as I will do your Majesty all possible good services in it, so I am far from seeking to impropriate to myself the thanks, but shall become omnibus omnia, as St. Paul saith, to attain your Majesty's ends.

As soon as I have occasion, I will write to your Majesty touching the same, and will have special care to communicate with my lords, in some principal points, though all things are not at first fit for the whole table. I ever rest

Your Majesty's most bounden and most devoted servant,


2 Oct. 1620.

Your Majesty needeth not to doubt but that I shall carry the business with that secrecy which appertaineth.



YESTERDAY I called unto us the two chief justices, and serjeant Crewe, about the parliament business. To call more judges, I thought not good.. It would The disbe little to assistance, much to secrecy. tribution of the business we made was into four parts.

I. The perusing of the former grievance, and of things of like nature which have come since.

II. The consideration of a proclamation, with the clauses thereof, especially touching elections; which clauses nevertheless, we are of opinion, should be rather monitory than exclusive.

III. The inclusive: that is to say, what persons were fit to be of the house, tending to make a sufficient and well-composed house of the ablest men of the kingdom, fit to be advised with circa ardua regni, as the style of the writs goeth, according to the pure and true institution of a parliament; and of the means to place such persons without novelty or much observation. For this purpose we made some lists of names of the prime counsellors, and principal statesmen or courtiers; of the gravest or wisest lawyers; of the most respected and best tempered And here knights and gentlemen of the county. obiter we did not forget to consider who were the boutefeus of the last session, how many of them are dead, how many reduced, and how many remain, and what were fit to be done concerning them. Ibid. p. 115.

† Ibid. p. 114.


IV. The having ready of some commonwealth | master of the wards, that it should be hastened and bills, that may add respect and acknowledgment of the king's care; not wooing bills to make the king and his graces cheap; but good matter to set them on work, that an empty stomach do not feed upon humour.

set in hand with all speed, which his Majesty doubteth not but is done by this time. Touching your advice for a treasurer, his Majesty is very mindful of it, and will let you know as much at his return, when he will speak farther with your lordship of it. And so I rest

Of these four points, that which concerneth persons is not so fit to be communicated with the council-table, but to be kept within fewer hands. The other three may, when they are ripe.

Meanwhile I thought good to give his Majesty an account what is done, and in doing, humbly craving his direction if any thing be to be altered or added; though it may be ourselves shall have second thoughts, this being but the result of our first meeting.

The state of his Majesty's treasure still maketh me sad, and I am sorry I was not at Theobald's to report it, or that it was not done by my fellows: it is most necessary we do it faithfully and freely: for to flatter in this, were to betray his Majesty with a kiss. I humbly pray his Majesty to think of my former counsel; and this I will promise, that whomsoever his Majesty shall make treasurer, if his Majesty shall direct him to have relation to my advice, I will continue the same care and advice I do now, and much more cheerfully when I shall perceive that my propositions shall not be literæ scriptæ in glacie.

Meanwhile, to keep the commission in doing of somewhat worth the doing, it may please his Majesty to take knowledge, that upon our report we had agreed to make remonstrance to him, that we thought Ireland might, if his Majesty leave it to our care, be brought by divers good expedients to bear their own charge; and therefore his Majesty may be pleased by his commandment to set us in hand with it out of hand. God ever prosper you.

Your lordship's most obliged friend and faithful
Octob. 7, 1620.

For the business of Ireland, his Majesty had heard of it before, and gave commandment to the

Yours, &c.

Stephens's Second Collection, p. 117.
Rawley's Resuscitatio.

Royston, 9 October, 1620.





I HAVE acquainted his Majesty with your letter,


and labour in his service, for which he commandeth CCXLIII. TO THE MARQUIS OF BUCKING. me to give you thanks, and to let your lordship know, that he liketh exceeding well your method held by the judges, which could not be amended, and concurreth with you and your opinions. First, touching the proclamation, that it should be monitory and persuasive, rather than compulsive: and, secondly, that the point concerning the persons, who should be admitted, and who avoided, is fit to be kept from the knowledge of the council-table, and to be carried with all secrecy.


I HAVE received your letter, and your book, than the which you could not have sent a more acceptable present unto me. How thankful I am for it, cannot better be expressed by me, than by a firm resolution I have taken; first, to read it through with care and attention, though I should steal some hours from my sleep: having otherwise, as little spare time to read it, as you had to write it. And then, to use the liberty of a true friend, in not sparing to ask you the question in any point whereof I shall stand in doubt: nam ejus est explicare, cujus est condere as, on the other part, I will willingly give a due commendation to such places, as, in my opinion, shall deserve it. In the mean time I can with comfort assure you, that you could not have made choice of a subject more befitting your place, and your universal and methodical knowledge; and in the general, I have already observed, that you jump with me, in keeping the mid way between the two extremes; as also in some particulars I have found that you agree fully with my opinion. And so praying God to give your work as good success as your heart can wish, and your labours deserve, I bid you heartily farewell.


October 16, 1620.


I SEND his Majesty a form of a proclamation for the parliament, which I thought fit to offer first to his Majesty's perusal, before I acquainted the council.

For that part which concerneth the foreign business, his Majesty will graciously consider, how easy it is for me to mistake, or not to attain; which his Majesty in his wisdom will pardon, correct, and direct.

Stephens's Second Collection, p. 121.


the same resolution, since the time that our dear sonin-law was elected and accepted king of Bohemia; by how much the motives tending to shake and assail our said resolution were the more forcible. For neither did the glory of having our dearest daughter and son-in-law to wear a crown; nor the extreme We are thinking of some commonwealth laws, alacrity of our people devoted to that cause; nor amongst which I would have one special for the the representations, which might be set before us of maintenance of the navy, as well to give occasion dangers, if we should suffer a party in christendom, to publish, to his Majesty's honour, what hath been held commonly adverse and ill-affected to our state already done; as, to speak plainly, to do your lord- and government, to gather farther reputation and ship honour in the second place; and besides, it is strength, transport us to enter into an auxiliary war, agreeable to the times. God ever prosper you. in prosecution of that quarrel but contrariwise, Your lordship's most obliged friend and faithful finding the justice of the cause not so clear, as that we could be presently therein satisfied; and weighing with ourselves likewise, that if the kingdom of Bohemia had continued in the house of Austria, yet nevertheless the balance of christendom had stood in no other sort than it had done for many years before, without increase of party; and chiefly fearing that the wars in those parts of Germany, which have been hitherto the bulwark of christendom against the approaches of the Turk, might by the intestine dissensions allure and let in the common enemy; we did abstain to declare or engage ourselves in that war, and were contented only to give permission to the ambassador of our son-in-law, to draw some voluntary helps of men and money from our subjects, being a matter that violated no treaty, and could not be denied in case of so near a conjunction.

servant, Oct. 18, 1620.


For that part touching the elections, I have communicated it with my colleagues, Sir Edward Coke, the two chief justices, and serjeant Crewe, who approve it well; and we are all of opinion, that it is not good to have it more peremptory, more particular, nor more sharp.




As in our princely judgment we hold nothing more worthy of a christian monarch, than the conservation of peace at home and abroad; whereby effusion of christian blood and other calamities of war are avoided, trade is kept open, laws and justice retain their due vigour and play, arts and sciences flourish, subjects are less burdened with taxes and tallages, and infinite other benefits redound to the state of a commonweal; so in our own practice we suppose there hath been seldom any king, that hath given more express testimonies and real pledges of his desire to have peace conserved, than we have done in the whole course of our regiment.

For neither have we, for that which concerns ourselves, been ready to apprehend or embrace any occasions or opportunities of making war upon our neighbours; neither have we omitted, for that which may concern the states abroad, any good office or royal endeavour for the quenching of the sparks of troubles and discords in foreign parts. Wherein, as we have been always ready and willing, so we wish that we had been always as happy and prevailing in our advices and counsels that tended to that end.

And yet do we not forget, that God hath put into our hands a sceptre over populous and warlike nations, which might have moved us to second the affection and disposition of our people, and to have wrought upon it for our own ambition, if we had been so minded. But it hath sufficed unto us to seek a true and not swelling greatness, in the plantations and improvements of such parts of our dominions, as have, in former times, been more desolate or uncivil, and in the maintaining of all our loving subjects in general in tranquillity and security, and the other conditions of good government, and happy times. But amongst other demonstrations of our constant purpose and provident care to maintain peace, there was never such a trial, nor so apparent to the world, as in a theatre, as our persisting in * Stephens's Second Collection, p. 122.

But while we contained ourselves in this moderation, we find the event of war hath much altered the case, by the late invasion of the Palatinate, whereby, howsoever under the pretence of a diversion, we find our son in fact expulsed in part, and in danger to be totally dispossessed of his ancient inheritance and patrimony, so long continued in that noble line; whereof we cannot but highly resent, if it should be alienated and ravished from him in our times, and to the prejudice of our grandchildren and line royal. Neither can we think it safe for us in reason of state, that the county Palatine carrying with itself an electorate, and having been so long in the hands of princes of our religion and no way depending upon the house of Austria, should now become at the disposing of that house: being a matter, that indeed might alter the balance of christendom importantly, to the weakening of our estate, and the estate of our best friends and confederates.

Wherefore, finding a concurrence of reasons and respects of religion, nature, honour, and estate; all of them inducing us in no wise to endure so great an alteration; we are resolved to employ the uttermost of our forces and means, to recover and re-settle the said Palatinate to our son and our descendants, purposing nevertheless, according to our former inclination so well grounded, not altogether to intermit, if the occasions give us leave, the treaties of peace and accord, which we have already begun, and whereof the coming on of the winter, and the counterpoise of the actions of war, hitherto may give us as yet some appearance of hope.†

+Against this passage, in the margin, is written, "I pray God this hold."

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