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virtues in the buds (which are the sweetest) than




have been known in a young prince, of long time; CCLXII. A MEMORIAL FOR HIS MAJESTY'S : with the realm so well beloved, so much honoured, as it is men's daily observation how nearly you approach to his Majesty's perfections; how every day you exceed yourself; how, compared with other princes, which God hath ordained to be young at this time, you shine amongst them; they rather setting off your religious, moral, and natural excellencies, than matching them, though you be but a second person. These and such like meditations I feed upon, since I can yield your highness no other retribution. And for myself, I hope by the assistance of God above, of whose grace and favour I have had extraordinary signs and effects during my afflictions, to lead such a life in the last acts thereof, as whether his Majesty employ me, or whether I live to myself, I shall make the world say that I was not unworthy such a patron.

FOR that your Majesty is pleased to call for my opinion concerning the sacred intention you have to go on with the reformation of your courts of justice, and relieving the grievances of your people, which i the parliament hath entered into; I shall never be i a recusant, though I be confined, to do you service. i Your Majesty's star-chamber, next your court of parliament, is your highest chair. You never came upon that mount, but your garments did shine be- 1 fore you went off. It is the supreme court of judi- i cature ordinary, it is an open council; nothing I would think can be more seasonable, if your other appointments permit it, than if your Majesty will be pleased to come thither in person, the morrow after this term, (which is the time anniversary, before the circuits and the long vacation,) and there make an open declaration :

I am much beholden to your highness's worthy servant Sir John Vaughan, the sweet air and loving usage of whose house hath already much revived my languishing spirits.; I beseech your highness, thank him for me. God ever preserve and prosper your highness.

That you purpose to pursue the reformation, which the parliament hath begun. That all things go well, in all affairs, when the ordinary and extraordinary are well mingled and tempered together. Your highness's most humble and most bounden That in matters of your treasure, you did rely upon



1 June, 1621.

your parliament for the extraordinary, but you were ever desirous to do what you could by improvements, retrenchments, and the like, to set the ordinary in good frame and establishment. That you are in the same mind in matter of reformation of justice, and grievance, to assist yourself with the advice and authority of parliament at times; but meanwhile to go on with the same intentions, by your own regal power and care. That it doth well in church-music when the greatest part of the hymn is sung by one voice, and then the choir at all times falls in sweetly and solemnly, and that the same harmony sorteth well in monarchy between the king and his parliament.


IT MAY PLEASE YOUR MOST Excellent MAJESTY, I HUMBLY thank your Majesty for my liberty, without which timely grant, any farther grace would have come too late. But your Majesty that did shed tears in the beginning of my trouble, will, I hope, shed the dew of your grace and goodness upon me in the end. Let me live to serve you, else life is but the shadow of death to

Your Majesty's most devoted servant,

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That all great reformations are best brought to perfection by a good correspondence between the king and his parliament, and by well sorting the matters and the times; for in that which the king doth in his ordinary administration, and proceedings, neither can the information be so universal, nor the complaint so well encouraged, nor the references so many times free from private affection, as when the king proceedeth by parliament; on the other side, that the parliament wanteth time to go through with many things; besides, some things are of that nature, as they are better discerned and resolved by a few than by many. Again, some things are SO merely regal, as it is not fit to transfer them; and many things, whereof it is fit for the king to have the principal honour and thanks.

Therefore, that according to these differences and distributions, your Majesty meaneth to go on, where the parliament hath left, and to call for the memorials, and inchoations of those things, which have passed in both houses, and to have them pass the file of your council, and such other assistance as shall be thought fit to be called respectively, accord† Ibid. p. 147. + Ibid.


ing to the nature of the business, and to have your learned counsel search precedents what the king hath done for matter of reformation, as the parliament hath informed themselves by precedents what the parliament hath done and thereupon that the clock be set, and resolutions taken, what is to be holpen by commission, what by act of council, what by proclamation, what to be prepared for parliament, what to be left wholly for parliament.


That if your Majesty had done this before a parliament, it mought have been thought to be done to prevent a parliament, whereas, now it is to pursue a parliament; and that by this means many grievances shall be answered by deed, and not by word; and your Majesty's care shall be better than any standing committee in this interim between the meetings of parliament.

For the particulars, your Majesty in your grace and wisdom will consider, how unproper and how unwarranted a thing it is for me, as I now stand, to send for entries of parliament, or for searchers for precedents, whereupon to ground an advice; and besides, what I should now say may be thought by your Majesty (how good an opinion soever you have of me) much more by others, to be busy or officious, or relating to my present fortunes.


YOUR lordship, I know, and the king both, mought think me very unworthy of that I have been, or that I am, if I should not by all means desire to be freed from the restraint which debarreth me from approach to his Majesty's person, which I ever so much loved, and admired; and severeth me likewise from all conference with your lordship, which is my second comfort. Nevertheless, if it be conceived that it may be matter of inconvenience, or envy, my particular respects must give place: only in regard of my present urgent occasions, to take some present order for the debts that press me most, I have petitioned his Majesty to give me leave to stay at London till the last of July, and then I will dispose of my abode according to the sentence. I have sent to the prince to join with you in it, for though the matter seem small, yet it importeth me much. God prosper you.

20 June, 1621.



I THANK God I am come very well to GorhamCCLXIII. TO THE MARQUIS OF BUCKING-bury, whereof I thought your lordship would be glad


to hear sometimes; my lord, I wish myself by you in this stirring world, not for any love to place or business, for that is almost gone with me, but for my love to yourself, which can never cease in

Your lordship's most obliged friend and true servant,


Being now out of use and out of sight, I recommend myself to your lordship's love and favour, to maintain me in his Majesty's grace and good intention.

Your lordship's true servant,

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hands, and to receive his pleasure from himself. My riches in my adversity have been, that I have had a good master, a good friend, and a good servant.

I perceive by Mr. Meautys his Majesty's inclination, that I should go first to Gorhambury; and his Majesty's inclinations have ever been with me instead of directions. Wherefore I purpose, God willing, to go thither forthwith, humbly thanking his Majesty, nevertheless, that he meant to have put my desire, in my petition contained, into a way, if I had insisted upon it; but I will accommodate my present occasions as I may, and leave the times, and seasons, and ways, to his Majesty's grace and choice.

Only I desire his Majesty to bear with me if I have pressed unseasonably. My letters out of the Tower were de profundis; and the world is a prison, if I may not approach his Majesty, finding in my heart as I do. God preserve and prosper his Majesty, and your lordship.

Your lordship's faithful and bounden servant,
22 June, 1621.


IT MAY PLEASE YOUR MOST EXCELLENT MAJESTY, I PERCEIVE by my noble and constant friend the marquis, that your Majesty hath a gracious inclination towards me, and taketh care of me, for fifteen years the subject of your favour, now of your compassion; for which I most humbly thank your Majesty. This same nova creatura is the work of God's pardon and the king's; and since I have the inward seal of the one, I hope well of the other.



Utar,' saith Seneca to his master, magnis exemplis; nec meæ fortunæ, sed tuæ.' Demosthenes was banished for bribery of the highest nature, yet was recalled with honour; Marcus Livius was condemned for exactions, yet afterwards made consul and censor. Seneca banished for divers corruptions, yet was afterwards restored, and an instrument of § Ibid.

Ibid. p. 152.


that memorable Quinquennium Neronis. Many This, if it please your Majesty, I do not say for appetite of employment, but for hope that if I do by myself as is fit, your Majesty will never suffer me to die in want or dishonour. I do now feed myself upon remembrance, how when your Majesty used to go a progress, what loving and confident charges you were wont to give me touching your business. For as Aristotle saith, young men may be happy by hope, so why should not old men, and sequestered men, by remembrance? God ever prosper and preserve your Majesty.

Your Majesty's most bounden and devoted servant, FR. ST. ALBAN.

16 July, 1621.



I HAVE delivered your lordship's letter of thanks to his Majesty, who accepted it very graciously, and will be glad to see your book, which you promised to send very shortly, as soon as it cometh. I send your lordship his Majesty's warrant for your pardon, as you desired it; but am sorry that in the current of my service to your lordship there should be the least stop of any thing; yet having moved his Majesty, upon your servant's intimation, for your stay in London till Christmas, I found his Majesty, who hath in all other occasions, and even in that particular already, to the dislike of many of your own friends, showed with great forwardness his gracious favour towards you, very unwilling to grant you any longer liberty to abide there: which being but a small advantage to you, would be a great and general distaste, as you cannot but easily conceive, to the whole state. And I am the more sorry for this refusal of his Majesty's falling in a time when I was a suitor to your lordship in a particular concerning myself, wherein though your servant insisted farther than, I am sure, would ever enter into your thoughts, I cannot but take it as a part of a faithful servant in him. But if your lordship, or your lady, find it inconvenient for you to part with the house, I would rather provide myself otherwise, than any way incommodate you, but will never slack any thing of my affection to do you service; whereof if I have not yet given good proof, I will desire nothing more, than the fittest occasion to show how much I am Your lordship's faithful servant, G. BUCKINGHAM.

Octob. 1621.



An unexpected accident maketh me hasten this letter to your lordship, before I could despatch Mr. Meautys; it is that my lord keeper hath stayed my * Stephens's Second Collection, p. 153. + Ibid. p. 154.

pardon at the seal. But it is with good respect; for he saith it shall be private, and then he would forthwith write to your lordship, and would pass it if he received your pleasure; and doth also show his reason of stay, which is, that he doubteth the exception of the sentence of parliament is not well drawn, nor strong enough; which if it be doubtful, my lord hath great reason. But sure I am, both myself, and the king, and your lordship, and Mr. Attorney, meant clearly, and I think Mr. Attorney's pen hath gone well. My humble request to your lordship is, that for my lord's satisfaction Mr. Solicitor may be joined with Mr. Attorney, and if it bett safe enough, it may go on; if not it may be amended. I ever rest.

Your lordship's most obliged friend and faithful servant,


18 October, 1621.



I HAVE brought your servant along to this piace, in expectation of the letter from the lord keeper, which your lordship mentioneth in yours; but having not yet received it, I cannot make answer of the business you write of; and therefore thought fit not to detain your man here any longer, having nothing else to write, but that I always rest

Your lordship's faithful friend and servant,

Hinchenbrook, 20 Oct. 1621.



Now that I am provided of a house, I have thought it congruous to give your lordship notice thereof, that you may no longer hang upon the treaty, which hath been between your lordship and me, touching York-house; in which I assure your lordship, I never desired to put you to the least

inconvenience. So I rest

Your lordship's servant,


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I AM glad your lordship understands me so rightly in my last letter. I continue still in the same mind, for, I thank God, I am settled to my contentment; and so I hope you shall enjoy yours, with the more, because I am so well pleased in mine. And, my lord, I shall be very far from taking it ill, if you part with it to any else, judging it alike unIbid. p. 155. § Ibid. p. 156. Ibid.

reasonableness, to desire that which is another ( upon me, in referring the consideration of my broken man's, and to bind him by promise or otherwise not to let it to another.

estate to my good lord the treasurer; which as it is a singular bounty in your Majesty, so I have yet so much left of a late commissioner of your treasure, as I would be sorry to sue for any thing that might seem immodest. These your Majesty's great benefits, in casting your bread upon the waters, (as the Scripture saith,) because my thanks cannot any ways be sufficient to attain, I have raised your progenitor, of famous memory, (and now I hope, of more famous memory than before,) king Henry VII. to give your Majesty thanks for me; which work, most humbly kissing your Majesty's hands, I do present. And because in the beginning of my trouble, when in the midst of the tempest I had a kenning of the harbour, which I hope now by your Majesty's favour I am entering into, I made a tender to your Majesty of two works, A history of England, and A digest of


TO THE MARQUIS OF BUCKING- your laws, as I have, by a figure of pars pro toto,
performed the one, so I have herewith sent your
Majesty, by way of an epistle, a new offer of the
other. But my desire is farther, if it stand with
your Majesty's good pleasure, since now my study is
my exchange, and my pen my factor, for the use of
my talent; that your Majesty (who is a great master
in these things) would be pleased to appoint me
some task to write, and that I shall take for an
oracle. And because my Instauration (which I
esteem my great work, and do still go on with silence)
was dedicated to your Majesty; and this History of
king Henry VII. to your lively and excellent image
the prince; if now your Majesty will be pleased to
give me a theme to dedicate to my lord of Bucking-
ham, whom I have so much reason to honour, I
should with more alacrity embrace your Majesty's
direction than my own choice. Your Majesty will
pardon me for troubling you thus long.
God ever-
more preserve and prosper you.

Your Majesty's poor beadsman most devoted,

Gorhambury, 20 Mar. 1621.

My lord, I will move his Majesty to take commiseration of your long* imprisonment, which in some respects, both you and I have reason to think harder, than the Tower; you for the help of physic, your parley with your creditors, your conference for your writings, and studies, dealing with friends about your business and I for this advantage to be sometimes happy in visiting and conversing with your lordship, whose company I am much desirous to enjoy, as being tied by ancient acquaintance to rest,

Your lordship's faithful friend and servant,



THOUGH I returned answer to your lordship's last honourable and kind letter, by the same way by which I received it; yet I humbly pray your lordship to give me leave to add these few lines. My lord, as God above is my witness, that I ever have loved and honoured your lordship as much, I think, as any son of Adam can love or honour a subject; and continue in as hearty and strong wishes of felicity to be heaped and fixed upon you as ever; so as low as I am, I had rather sojourn in a college in Cambridge, than recover a good fortune by any other than yourself. To recover yourself to me (if I have you not) or to ease your lordship in any thing, wherein your lordship would not so fully appear, or to be made participant of your favours in your way; I would use any man that were your lordship's friend. Secondly, if in any of my former letters I have given your lordship any distaste, by the style of them, or any particular passage, I humbly pray your lordship's benign construction and pardon. For I confess it is my fault, though it be some happiness to me withal, that I many times forget my adversity: but I shall never forget to be, &c. 5 March, 1621.



I ACKNOWLEDGE myself in all humbleness infinitely bounden to your Majesty's grace and goodness, for that, at the intercession of my noble and constant friend, my lord marquis, your Majesty hath been pleased to grant me that which the civilians say is res inestimabilis, my liberty. So that now, whenever God calleth me, I shall not die a prisoner. Nay, | farther, your Majesty hath vouchsafed to cast a second and iterate aspect of your eye of compassion

Restraint from coming within the verge of the court.
From the original draught.



THESE main and real favours which I have lately received from your good lordship, in procuring my liberty, and a reference of the consideration of my release, are such as I now find that in building upon your lordship's noble nature and friendship, I have built upon the rock, where neither winds nor waves can cause overthrow. I humbly pray your lordship to accept from me such thanks as ought to come from him whom you have much comforted in fortune, and much more comforted in showing your love and affection to him; of which also I have heard by my lord Falkland, Sir Edward Sackville, Mr. Matthews, and other ways.

Stephens's Second Collection, p. 164.
§ Ibid. p. 157.

I have made also, in that letter, an offer to his Majesty of my service, for bringing into better order and frame the laws of England: the declaration whereof I have left with Sir Edward Sackville, because it were no good manners to clog his Majesty, at this time of triumph and recreation, with a business of this nature; so as your lordship may be pleased to call for it to Sir Edward Sackville when you think the time seasonable.

I have written, as my duty was, to his Majesty | instantiis impleantur volumina, quæ historiam C. thanks touching the same, by the letter I here put | Plinii sextuplicent ? In qua tamen ipsa plurima into your noble hands. philologica, fabulosa, antiquitatis, non naturæ. Etenim veram historiam naturalem nihil aliud ingreditur præter instantias, connexiones, observationes, canones. Cogita altera ex parte immensa volumina philosophica; facile perspicies maximæ solida esse maxime finita.

I am bold likewise to present your lordship with a book of my History of king Henry the seventh. And now that, in summer was twelve months, I dedicated a book to his Majesty; and this last summer, this book to the prince; your lordship's turn is next, and this summer that cometh (if I live to it) shall be yours. I have desired his Majesty to appoint me the task, otherwise I shall use my own choice; for this is the best retribution I can make to your lordship. God prosper you. I rest

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In physica prudenter notas, et idem tecum sentio, post notiones primæ classis, et axiomata super ipsas, per inductionem bene eruta et terminata, tuto adhiberi syllogismum, modo inhibeatur saltus ad generalissima, et fiat progressus per scalam convenientem. De multitudine instantiarum, quæ homines deterrere possit, hæc respondeo :

Primo, quid opus est dissimulatione? Aut copia instantiarum comparanda, aut negotium deserendum. Aliæ omnes viæ, utcunque blandiantur, imperviæ.

Secundo (quod et ipse notas) prærogativæ instantiarum, et modus experimentandi circa experimenta lucifera (quem aliquando trademus) de multitudine ipsarum plurimum detrahent.

Postremo, ex nostra philosophandi methodo excipietur in via plurimorum operum utilium messis, quæ ex speculationibus aut disputationibus sterilis aut nulla est.

From Niceron, tom. III. p. 45.

He was a Barnabite monk at Annecy in Savoy, who in his Lectures on Philosophy began to discard the authority

Historiam naturalem ad condendam philosophiam (ut et tu mones) ante omnia præopto; neque huic rei deero, quantum in me est. Utinam habeam et adjutores idoneos. Neque in hac parte mihi quidpiam accidere poterit felicius, quam si tu, talis vir, primitias huic operi præbeas conscribendo historiam cœlestium, in qua ipsa tantum phænomena, atque una instrumenta astronomica, eorumque genera et usum; dein hypotheses præcipuas et maxime illustres, tam antiquas quam modernas, atque simul exactas restitutionum calculationes, et alia hujusmodi sincere proponas, absque omni dogmate et themate. Quod si huic cœlestium historiæ historiam cometarum adjeceris (de qua conficienda ecce tibi articulos quosdam et quasi topica particularia) magnificum prorsus frontispicium historiæ naturali extruxeris, et optime de scientiarum instauratione merueris, mihique gratissimum feceris.

Librum meum de progressu scientiarum traducendum commisi. Illa translatio, volente Deo, sub finem æstatis perficietur: eam ad te mittam.

Opera tua, quæ publici juris sunt, inspexi; magne certe subtilitatis et diligentiæ in via vestra. Novatores, quos nominas, Patricium, Telesium, etiam alios, quos prætermittis, legi. Possint esse tales innumeri velut etiam antiquis temporibus fuerunt Anaximenes, Anaxagoras, Democritus, Parmenides, et alii (nam Pythagoram ut superstitiosum omitto). Inter istos tam antiquos quam modernos differentiam facultatis agnosco maximam, veritatis perparvam. Summa rei est, si homines se rebus submittere velint, aliquid confiet; sin minus, ingenia ista redibunt in


Stabilita jam sit inter nos notitia; meque, ut cœpisti, maxime autem veritatem ama. Vale. Tui amantissimus,


Apud Ædes meas, Londini,
Junii ultimo, 1622.


IT MAY PLEASE YOUR MOST EXCELLENT MAJESTY, IN the midst of my misery, which is rather assuaged by remembrance, than by hope; my chiefest worldly comfort is, to think that since the time I had

Tertio, quid magni foret, rogo, si in describendis the first vote of the commons house of parliament for

of Aristotle. He died the 23 December, 1622, at the age of 33.

Stephens's Second Collection, p. 158.

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