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the Conde de Gondomar, who, thinking that it should find me in England, saith thus: "Beso las manos mil vezes a mi sennor, el sennor Gran Chancilor, con my coracon; como estoy en su buena gracia." The empress is dead long since, and the emperor is so sickly, or rather so sick, that they forbear to bury her with solemnity, as conceiving, that he will save charge by dying shortly. They say here, that the business of Bohemia is growing towards an end by composition.

In Spain there are very extraordinary preparations | could so think fit. I do now receive a letter from for a great armada. Here is lately in this court a current speech, as that the enterprise, whatsoever it should have been, is laid wholly aside: but that were strange. Yet this is certain, that the forces of men, to the number of almost two thousand, which were to have gone into Spain from hence, are discharged, together with some munition, which was also upon the point of being sent. Another thing is also certain, that both in the court of Spain and this, there is at this time a strange straitness of money; which I do not conceive, for my part, to proceed so much from want, as design to employ it. The rendezvous, where the forces were to meet, was at Malaga within the straits; which makes the enterprise upon Algiers most likely to be intended. For I take that to be a wild conceit, which thinks of going by the Adriatic per far in un viaggio duoi servitii; as the giving a blow to Venice, and the landing of forces in aid of the king of Bohemia about Trieste.

Perhaps the king of Spain would be glad to let the world see, that now he is hors de paye; and by showing himself in some action, to entitle the duke of Lerma to all his former sloth; or perhaps he now makes a great preparation, upon the pretence of some enterprise, that he will let fall, that so he may with the less noise assemble great forces some other year, for some other attempt not spoken of now.

My lord Compton * is in this court, and goes shortly towards Italy. His fashion is sweet, and his disposition noble, and his conversation fair and honest.


Diego, my lord Roos's man, is come hither. pray God it be to do me any good towards the recovery of the debt his lord owes me.

Most honoured lord, I am here at good leisure to look back upon your lordship's great and noble goodness towards me, which may go for a great example in this age; and so it doth. That which I am sure of, is, that my poor heart, such as it is, doth not only beat, but even boil in the desires it hath to do your lordship all humble service.

I crave leave, though it be against good manners, that I may ever present my humblest service to my most honoured lady, my lady Verulam, and lady Constable, with my best respects to my dear friend, Sir John Constable; who, if your lordship want the leisure, would perhaps cast an eye upon the enclosed paper.

I do, with more confidence, presume to address this other letter to Mr. Meautys, because the contents thereof concern your lordship's service.

I beseech sweet Jesus to make and keep your lordship entirely happy. So I humbly do you reverence, remaining ever

Your lordship's most obliged servant,


POST. I should be glad to receive some of your lordship's philosophical labours, if your lordship

Spencer, lord Compton, only son of William, earl of Northampton. This nobleman, who succeeded his father in his title and estate, in June 1630, was killed at Hopton-Heath,

Brussels, this 14th of Feb. 1619.



FOR the services committed to Sir Lionel Cranfield, after his Majesty hath spoken with him, I shall attend and follow his Majesty's pleasure and directions, and yield my best care, advice, and endeavour for performance.

In the pretermitted duty I have some profit, and more was to have had if queen Anne had lived. Wherefore I shall become an humble suitor to his Majesty, that I may become no loser, specially seeing the business had been many a time and oft quite overthrown, if it had not been upheld only, or chiefly, by myself; so that whatsoever service hath been since done, is upon my foundation.

Mr. Attorney † groweth pretty pert with me of late; and I see well who they are that maintain him. But be they flies, or be they wasps, I neither care for buzzies nor stings, more especially in any thing that concerneth my duty to his Majesty, or my love to your lordship.

I forgot not, in my public charge, the last starchamber day, to publish his Majesty's honour for his late commission for the relief of the poor, and suppressing vagabonds; as also his gracious intention touching informers, which, I perceive, was received with much applause. That of projectors I spake not of, because it is not yet ripe, neither doth it concern the execution of any law, for which my speech was proper. God ever preserve and prosper you.

Your lordship's most obliged friend and faithful servant,

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the rolls. But neither I, nor the master of the rolls, fore ended by award, but is now revived again, and know what is in it; but it cometh first to his Ma- was, in Michaelmas term last, fully heard before jesty's sight. Only I did direct, that because the your lordship; at which hearing your lordship did authentic copy, unto which my lord is sworn, accord- not give your opinion thereof, but were pleased to ing to the course of the court, is not so fit for his | defer it, until breviats were delivered on both sides; Majesty's reading, my lord of Suffolk should send which, as I am informed, hath been done accordwithal a paper copy, which his Majesty might readingly now my desire unto your lordship is, that with less trouble.

My lady Suffolk is so ill of the small-pox, as she is not yet fit to make any answer.

Bingley's answer is come in, a long one; and, as I perceive, with some things impertinent, yea, and unfit. Of that I confer with Mr. Solicitor + tomorrow; and then I will farther advertise your lordship.

God ever preserve and prosper you.

Your lordship's most obliged friend and faithful servant,

FR. VERULAM, CANC. York-house, this 23d of Feb. 1619, at nine of the clock [1619-20.]


I Do even now receive this letter from the Conde de Gondomar, with direction I should send it, since I am not there to deliver it, to Mr. Wyche, that so he may present it to your lordship's hand at such time, as it may be of most use to him. He commands me besides, that for his sake I should become an humble solicitor to your lordship for this friend of his; which I presume to do the more willingly, because this party is a great friend of mine, and so are also many of his friends my friends. Besides he wills me to represent his great thanks to your lordship, for the just favours you have been pleased to vouchsafe to Mr. Wyche already, the rather in contemplation of the Conde, as he hath been informed. And if in the company, or rather in the attendance of so great an intercessor, it be not an unpardonable kind of ill manners to intrude myself, I presume to cast myself at your lordship's feet, with protestation, that I shall be very particularly bound to your lordship's goodness for any favour, with justice, that he shall obtain.

I beseech Jesus keep your lordship ever entirely happy; and so doing all humble reverence, I take leave.

you will be pleased to take some time, as speedily as your lordship may, to give your opinion thereof, and so make a final end, as your lordship shall find the same in equity to deserve. For which I will

ever rest

Your lordship's faithful friend and servant,

Windsor, May 18, 1620.


I WENT to Kew for pleasure, but I met with pain. But neither pleasure nor pain can withdraw my mind from thinking of his Majesty's service. And because his Majesty shall see how I was occupied at Kew, I send him these papers of rules for the star-chamber, wherein his Majesty shall erect one of the noblest and durablest pillars for the justice of his kingdom in perpetuity, that can be, after, by his own wisdom, and the advice of his lords, he shall have revised them, and established them. The manner and circumstances I refer to my attending his Majesty. The rules are not all set down; but I will do the rest within two or three days. I ever remain

Your lordship's most obliged friend and faithful servant,

June 9, 1620.



MY VERY Good Lord,

SUCH is my haste at this time, that I cannot write so largely to yourself, as I would, in the business of the steel, in which once already I sent to your lordship, and in which I only desire the good of the commonwealth, and the service of my master. I therefore have sent this bearer, my servant, unto you, and committed the relation of the business to

Your lordship's most humble and most obliged him. And I do entreat your lordship to give credit servant,

to what he shall deliver your lordship therein, with TOBIE MATTHEW. your lawful assistance of my desires; wherein I doubt not but you shall do a very good office. And I shall rest ready to requite your courtesy; and, with my best wishes, continue

Brussels, this 26th of Feb. 1619.



Your very loving friend,


Egham, July 6, 1620.


UNDERSTANDING that there hath been a long and tedious suit depending in the chancery between Robert D'Oyley and his wife, plaintiffs, and Leonard My Lord Marquis in the behalf of his servant, Mr. Lovace, defendant; which cause hath been hereto

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Porter, and Mr. Dallington.

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His Majesty having made a reference of business to your lordship, concerning Sir Robert Douglas and Mr. David Ramsay, two of his highness's servants, whom he loveth, and whom I wish very well unto; I have thought fit to desire you to show them all the favour your lordship may therein: which I will acknowledge, and ever rest

Your lordship's faithful friend and servant, G. BUCKINGHAM. Farnham, the last of August, 1620.

The reference comes in the name of my brother Christopher, because they thought it would succeed the better: but the prince wisheth well to it.


Touching the business of wills.


AMONGST the counsels, which, since the time I had the honour to be first of your learned, and after of your privy council, I have given your Majesty faithfully, according to my small ability: I do take comfort in none more, than that I was the first, that advised you to come in person into the star-chamber; knowing very well, that those virtues of your Majesty, which I saw near hand, would out of that throne, both, as out of a sphere, illustrate your own honour, and, as out of a fountain, water and refresh your whole land. And because your Majesty, in that you have already done, hath so well effected that, which I foresaw and desired, even beyond my expectation; it is no marvel, if I resort still to the branches of that counsel, that hath borne so good fruit.

The star-chamber, in the institution thereof, hath two uses; the one as a supreme court of judicature; the other as an open council. In the first kind, your Majesty hath sat there now twice; the first time, in a cause of force, concerning the duels; the second time, in a cause of fraud, concerning the forgeries and conspiracies against the lady of Exeter; which two natures of crimes, force and fraud, are the proper objects of that court.

In the second kind, your Majesty came the first time of all, when you did set in frame and fabric the several jurisdictions of your courts. There wants a fourth part of the square to make all complete, which is, if your Majesty will be pleased to publish certain commonwealth commissions; which, as your Majesty hath well begun to do in some things, and to speak of in some others; so, if your Majesty will be pleased to make a solemn declaration of them in that place, this will follow :

First, that your Majesty shall do yourself an

Harl. MSS. Vol. 7006.

This letter appears to have been written after the proceedings against Sir Thomas Lake, and his lady and daughter,

infinite honour, and win the hearts of your people to acknowledge you, as well the most politic king, as the most just.

Secondly, it will oblige your commissioners to a more strict account, when they shall be engaged by such a public charge and commandment. And, thirdly, it will invite and direct any man, that finds himself to know any thing concerning those commissions, to bring in their informations. So as I am persuaded it will eternize your name and merit, and that king James's commissions will be spoken of, and put in ure, as long as Britain lasts; at the least, in the reign of all good kings.

For the particulars, besides the two commissions of the navy, and the buildings about London, wherein your Majesty may consider, whether you will have any thing altered or supplied, I wish these following

to be added.

Commission for advancing the clothing of England, as well the old drapery as the new, and all the incidents thereunto.

Commission for staying treasure within the realm, and the reiglement of moneys.

Commission for the provision of the realm with corn and grain, and the government of the exportation and importation thereof; and directing of public granaries, if cause be.

Commission for introducing and nourishing manufactures within the realm, for the setting people a-work, and the considering of all grants and privileges of that nature.

Commission to prevent the depopulation of towns and houses of husbandry, and for nuisances and highways.

Commission for the recovery of drowned lands. Commission for the suppression of the grievances of informers.

Commission for the better proceedings in the plantations of Ireland.

Commission for the provision of the realm with all kind of warlike defence, ordnance, powder, munition, and armour.

Of these you may take and leave, as it shall please you: and I wish the articles concerning every one of them, first allowed by your council, to be read openly, and the commissioners' names.

For the good, that comes of particular and select committees and commissions, I need not commonplace, for your Majesty hath found the good of them but nothing to that that will be, when such things are published; because it will vindicate them from neglect, and make many good spirits, that we little think of, co-operate in them.

I know very well, that the world, that commonly is apt to think, that the care of the commonwealth is but a pretext in matters of state, will perhaps conceive, that this is but a preparative to a parliament. But let not that hinder your Majesty's magnanimity, in opere operato, that is so good; and besides, that opinion, for many respects, will do no hurt to your affairs.

in the star-chamber, in January 1619-20, and before the resolution of calling the parliament which met January 30, 1620-1.



By his Majesty's directions Sir Francis Blundell will deliver you a petition of Sir Francis Annesley, his Majesty's secretary of Ireland, with his Majesty's pleasure thereupon. To the gentleman I wish very well, and do therefore recommend him and his cause to your lordship's good favour; and your respect of him, in his absence, I will thankfully acknowledge. So I take my leave.

Your lordship's very loving friend,

Theobald's, the 2d of Oct. 1620.


IT MAY PLEASE YOUR MOST EXCELLENT MAJESTY, IT being a thing to speak or write, specially to a king, in public, another in private, although I have dedicated a work,+ or rather a portion of a work, which, at last, I have overcome, to your Majesty by a public epistle, where I speak to you in the hearing of others; yet I thought fit also humbly to seek access for the same, not so much to your person as to your judgment, by these private lines.

The work, in what colours soever it may be set forth, is no more but a new logic, teaching to invent and judge by induction, as finding syllogism incompetent for sciences of nature; and thereby to make philosophy and sciences both more true and more active.

This tending to enlarge the bounds of reason, and to endow man's estate with new value, was no improper oblation to your Majesty, who, of men, is the greatest master of reason, and author of beneficence. There be two of your council, and one other bishopt of this land, that know I have been about some such work near thirty years; § so as I made no haste. And the reason why I have published it now, specially being unperfect, is, to speak plainly, because I number my days, and would have it saved. There is another reason of my so doing, which is to try whether I can get help in one intended part of

*Harl. MSS. Vol. 7006.

+ Novum Organum. In the library of the late Thomas, earl of Leicester, the descendant of Sir Edward Coke, at Holkham in Norfolk, is a copy of this work, entitled Instauratio Magna, printed by John Bill, in 1620, presented to Sir Edward, who at the top of the title-page has written, Edw. C. ex dono auctoris.

"Auctori Consilium.

Instaurare paras veterum documenta sophorum :
Instaura Leges Justitiamq; prius."

And over the device of the ship passing between Hercules's
Pillars, Sir Edward has written the two following verses:
"It deserveth not to be read in Schooles,
But to be freighted in the Ship of Fools."
Alluding to a famous book of Sebastian Brand, born at Stras-
burgh, about 1460, written in Latin and High Dutch verse, and
translated into English in 1508, by Alexander Barklay, and
printed at London the year following, by Richard Pynson,
printer to Henry VII. and Henry VIII. in folio, with the fol-

this work, namely, the compiling of a natural and experimental history, which must be the main foundation of a true and active philosophy.

This work is but a new body of clay, whereinto your Majesty, by your countenance and protection, may breathe life. And, to tell your Majesty, truly what I think, I account your favour may be to this work as much as a hundred years time: for I am persuaded the work will gain upon men's minds in ages, but your gracing it may make it take hold more swiftly; which I would be very glad of, it being a work meant not for praise or glory, but for practice, and the good of men. One thing, I confess, I am ambitious of, with hope, which is, that after these beginnings, and the wheel once set on going, men shall seek more truth out of christian pens, than hitherto they have done out of heathen. I say with hope; because I hear my former book of the "Advancement of Learning," is well tasted in the universities here, and the English colleges abroad: and this is the same argument sunk deeper.

And so I ever humbly rest in prayers, and all other duties,

Your Majesty's most bounden and devoted servant, FR. VERULAM, CANC. York-house, this 12th of Oct. 1620.


THERE is a business in your lordship's hands, with which Sir Robert Lloyd did acquaint your lordship; whereof the prince hath demanded of me what account is given. And because I cannot inform his highness of any proceeding therein, I desire your lordship to use all expedition that may be, in making your answer to me, that I may give his highness some satisfaction, who is very desirous thereof. And so I rest

Your lordship's faithful friend and servant,
Royston, 14th of October, 1620.


Touching the register of wills.

lowing title: "The Shyp of Folys of the world: Translated in the Coll. of Saynt Mary Otery, in the counte of Devonshyre, out of Latin, Frenche, and Doche, into Englesshe tongue, by Alex. Barklay, preste and chaplen in the said College, M,CCCCC,VIII." It was dedicated by the translator to Thomas Cornish, bishop of Tine, and suffragan bishop of Wells, and adorned with great variety of wooden cuts. Dr. Lancelot Andrews, bishop of Winchester.

Mr. Chamberlain, in a letter to Sir Dudley Carleton, ambassador at Holland, dated at London, October 28, 1620, mentions, that Mr. Henry Cuffe, who had been secretary to Robert, earl of Essex, and executed for being concerned in his treasons, having long since perused this work, gave this censure, that a fool could not have written such a work, and a wise man would not. And, in another letter, dated Feb. 3, 1620-1, Mr. Chamberlain takes notice, that the king could not forbear sometimes, in reading that book, to say, that it was like the peace of God, that passeth all understanding. Harl. MSS. Vol. 7000.



I DESIRE your lordship to continue your favour to Sir Thomas Gerrard, in the business concerning him, wherein I signified his Majesty's pleasure to your lordship. And one favour more I am to entreat of your lordship in his behalf, that you will be pleased to speak to one of the assistants of the chancellor of the duchy, in whose court he hath a cause depending, as he will more fully inform your lordship himself, to see that he may have a fair proceeding, according to justice for which I will


ever rest
Your lordship's faithful friend and servant,
Royston, 15th of October, 1620.


MY VERY GOOD LORD, YOUR lordship desiring to understand what cometh of the business, after which the prince hearkeneth, I was in doubt which of the two businesses you meant; that of the Duchy or that of the Preroga- | tive-Court for wills; for both are recommended from the prince. But be it one, or be it the other, no time hath been lost in either; for Mr. Secretary Naunton and I have entered into both. For the Duchy, we have already stayed all proceeding to the king's disservice for those manors, which are not already passed under seal. For that which is passed, we have heard the attorney † with none or little satisfaction hitherto. The chancellor is not yet come, though sent for. For the other, we have heard Sir John Bennet, § and given him leave to acquaint my lord of Canterbury; and have required the solicitor || to come well prepared for the king. So that in neither we can certify yet; and to trouble your lordship, while business is but in passage, were time lost. I ever rest

Your lordship's most obliged friend and faithful servant,

October 16, 1620.


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This work, which is for the bettering of men's bread and wine, which are the characters of temporal blessings and sacraments of eternal, I hope, by God's holy providence, will be ripened by Cæsar's star.

Your Majesty shall not only do to myself a singular favour, but to your business a material help, if you will be graciously pleased to open yourself to me in those things wherein you may be unsatisfied. For though this work, as by position and principle, doth disclaim to be tried by any thing but by experience, and the results of experience in a true way; yet the sharpness and profoundness of your Majesty's judgment ought to be an exception to this general rule; and your questions, observations, and admonishments, may do infinite good.

This comfortable beginning makes me hope farther, that your Majesty will be aiding to me, in setting men on work for the collecting of a natural and experimental history; which is basis totius negotii, a thing which I assure myself will be, from time to time, an excellent recreation unto you; I say, to that admirable spirit of yours, that delighteth in light: and I hope well, that even in your times many noble inventions may be discovered for man's use. For who can tell, now this mine of truth is opened, how the veins go; and what lieth higher, and what lieth lower? But let me trouble your Majesty no farther at this time. God ever preserve and prosper your Majesty. [October 19, 1620.]



I SEND now only to give his Majesty thanks for the singular comfort which I received by his Majesty's letter of his own hand, touching my book. And I must also give your lordship of my best thanks for your letter so kindly and affectionately written.

I did even now receive your lordship's letter touching the proclamation, and do approve his Majesty's judgment and foresight about mine own. Neither would I have thought of inserting matter of state for the vulgar, but that now-a-days there is no vulgar, but all statesmen. But, as his Majesty doth excellently consider, the time of it is not yet proper. I ever rest

Your lordship's most obliged friend and faithful servant,

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