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tion to concern yourself, I will, as in the rest, deal freely with your Grace.


My lord, you owe, in this matter, two debts to the king the one, that, if in your conscience and judgment you be persuaded it be dangerous and prejudicial to him and his kingdoms, you deliver your soul, and in the freedom of a faithful counsellor, joined with the humbleness of a dutiful servant, you declare yourself accordingly, and show your reasons. The other, that if the king in his high judgment, or the prince in his settled affection, be resolved to have it go on, that then you move in their orb, as far as they shall lay it upon you. But meanwhile, let me tell your Grace that I am not of the general opinion abroad, that the match must break, or else my lord of Buckingham's fortune must break. I am of another opinion; and yet perhaps it will be hard to make you believe it, because both sides will persuade you to the contrary. For they that would not have it go on will work upon that conceit, to make you oppose it more strongly. They that would have it go on will do the same, to make you take up betimes, and come about. But I having good affiance in your Grace's judgment, will tell you my reasons why I thus think, and so leave it. If the match should go on, and put case against your counsel and opinion, doth any man think, that so profound a king, and so well seen in the science of reigning, and so understanding a prince, will ever suffer the whole sway of affairs and greatness to go that way? And, if not, who should be a fitter person to keep the balance even than your Grace, whom the king and prince know to be so entirely their own, and have found so nobly independent upon any other? Surely my opinion is, you are likely to be greater by counterpoise against the Spanish dependence, than you. will by concurrence. And therefore, in God's name, do your duty faithfully and wisely; for behaving yourself well otherwise, as I know you will, your fortune is like to be well either way.

For that excellent lady, whose fortune is so distant from her merits and virtue, the queen of Bohemia, your Grace, being as it were the first-born or prime man of the king's creatures, must in consequence owe the most to his children and generations; whereof I know your noble heart hath far greater sense than any man's words can infuse into you. And therefore whatsoever liveth within the compass of your duty, and of possibility, will no doubt spring from you out of that fountain.

It is open to every man's discourse, that there are but two ways for the restitution of the Palatinate, treaty and arms. It is good, therefore, to consider of the middle acts, which may make either of these ways desperate, to the end they may be avoided in that way which shall be chosen. If no match, either this with Spain, or perhaps some other with Austria, no restitution by treaty. If the Dutch, either be ruined, or grow to a peace, of themselves, with Spain, no restitution by war.

But these things your Grace understandeth far The duke's answer to this letter, dated at Newmarket, the 28th of January, 1623, is printed page 133. + Henry Vere, who died in 1625. He was lord great chamberlain of England.

better than myself. And, as I said before, the points of state I aim not at farther, than they may concern your Grace, to whom while I live, and shall find it acceptable to you, I shall ever be ready to give the tribute of a true friend and servant, and shall always think my counsels given you happy, if you shall pardon them when they are free, and follow them when they are good. God preserve and prosper you.


THERE is a suit, whereunto I may, as it were, claim kindred, and which may be of credit and profit unto me; and it is an old arrear, which is called upon, from Sir Nicholas Bacon, my eldest brother. It may be worth to me perhaps two thousand pounds; and yet I may deal kindly with my brother, and also reward liberally, as I mean to do, the officers of the exchequer, which have brought it to light. Good my lord, obtain it of the king, and be earnest in it for me. It will acquit the king somewhat of his promise, that he would have care of my wants; for hitherto, since my misfortunes, I have tasted of his Majesty's mercy, but not of his bounty. But your lordship may be pleased in this, to clear the coast with my lord treasurer; else there it will have a stop. I am almost at last cast for means; and yet it grieveth me most, that at such a time as this I should not be rather serviceable to your Grace, than troublesome. God preserve and prosper your Grace.

Your Grace's most obliged and faithful

This 23d of January, 1623.



LET me be an humble suitor to your lordship, for your noble favour. I would be glad to receive my writ this parliament, that I may not die in dishonour; but by no means, except it should be with the love and consent of my lords to re-admit me, if their lordships vouchsafe to think me worthy of their company; or if they think that which I have suffered now these three years, in loss of place, in loss of means, and in loss of liberty for a great time, to be a sufficient expiation for my faults, whereby I may now seem in their eyes to be a fit subject of their grace, as I have been before of their justice. My good lord, the good, which the commonwealth might reap of my suffering, is already inned. Justice is done; an example is made for reformation; the authority of the house for judicature is established. There can That met February 19, 1623, and was prorogued May 29, 1624.

be no farther use of my misery; perhaps some little may be of my service; for, I hope I shall be found a man humbled as a christian, though not dejected as a worldling. I have great opinion of your lordship's power, and great hope, for many reasons, of your favour; which if I may obtain, I can say no more but nobleness is ever requited in itself; and God, whose special favour in my afflictions I have manifestly found to my comfort, will, I trust, be my pay-master of that, which cannot be requited by Your lordship's affectionate humble servant, &c. Indorsed, February 2, 1623.


UPON a little searching, made touching the patents of the survey of coals, I find matter not only to acquit myself, but likewise to do myself much right.

Any reference to me, or any certificate of mine, I find not. Neither is it very likely I made any; for that, when it came to the great seal, I stayed it. I did not only stay it, but brought it before the council-table, as not willing to pass it, except their lordships allowed it. The lords gave hearing to the business, I remember, two several days; and in the end disallowed it, and commended my care and circumspection, and ordered, that it should continue stayed; and so it did all my time.

About a twelvemonth since, my lord duke of Lenox, now deceased,† wrote to me to have the privy seal; which, though I respected his lordship much, I refused to deliver to him, but was content to put it into the right hand; that is, to send it to my lord keeper, giving knowledge how it had been stayed. My lord keeper received it by mine own servant, writeth back to me, acknowledging the receipt, and adding, that he would lay it aside until his lordship heard farther from my lord steward,§ and the rest of the lords. Whether this first privy seal went to the great seal, or that it went about again, I know not; but all my part is, that I have related. I ever rest Your faithful friend and cousin,

March 14, 1623.



I AM now full three years old in misery; neither hath there been any thing done for me, whereby I might die out of ignominy, or live out of want. But now that your Grace, God's name be praised for it, hath recovered your health, and are come to the court, and the parliament business hath also inter

* He appears to be a relation of his lordship's lady, who was daughter of Benedict Barnham, Esq. alderman of the city of London. Sir Francis was appointed by his lordship one

of the executors of his last will.

† He died suddenly, February 12, 1623-4.

mission, I firmly hope your Grace will deal with his Majesty, that, as I have tasted of his mercy, I may also taste of his bounty. Your Grace, I know, for a business of a private man, cannot win yourself more honour; and I hope I shall yet live to do you service. For my fortune hath, I thank God, made no alteration in my mind, but to the better. I ever rest humbly

Your Grace's most obliged and faithful servant, FR. ST. ALBAN.

If I may know, by two or three words from your Grace, that you will set in for me, I will propound somewhat that shall be modest, and leave it to your Grace, whether you will move his Majesty yourself, or recommend it by some of your lordship's friends, that wish me well; [as my lord of Arundel, or Secretary Conway, or Mr. James Maxwell.]||


I UNDERSTAND, by Sir John Suckling, that he attended yesterday at Greenwich, hoping, according to your Grace's appointment, to have found you there, and to have received your Grace's pleasure touching my suit, but missed of you: and this day he sitteth upon the subsidy at Brentford, and shall not be at court this week: which causeth me to use these few lines, to hear from your Grace, I hope, to my comfort: humbly praying pardon, if I number thus the days, that misery should exceed modesty. I ever rest

Your Grace's most faithful and obliged servant, FR. ST. ALBAN.

June 30, 1624.



THIS way, by Mr. Myn, besides a number of little difficulties it hath, amounteth to this, that I shall pay interest for mine own money. Besides, I must confess, I cannot bow my mind to be a suitor, much less a shifter, for that means, which I enjoy by his Majesty's grace and bounty. And therefore I am rather ashamed of that I have done, than

minded to go forward. So that I leave it to yourself, what you think fit to be done in your honour and my case, resting

Your very loving friend,

FR. ST. ALBAN London, this 7th of July, 1624.

See his letter to lord St. Alban, of February 7, 1622. James, marquis of Hamilton, who died March 2, 1624-5. The words included in brackets have a line drawn afte them.



Now that your Grace hath the king private, and at better leisure, the noise of soldiers, ambassadors, parliaments, a little ceasing, I hope you will remember your servant; for at so good a time,* and after so long a time, to forget him, were almost to forsake him. But, howsoever, I shall still remain

Your Grace's most obliged and faithful servant,

I am bold to put into my good friend, Sir Tobie
Matthew's hand, a copy of my petition, which your
Grace had sent to Sir John Suckling.
Indorsed, August, 1624.



For if

is upon the throw.
But yet that is all one.
it should be a blow, which I hope in God it shall
not, yet it would have been ten times worse, if former
courses had not been taken. But this is the raving
of a hot ague.

God evermore bless his Majesty's person and designs, and likewise make your Grace a spectacle of prosperity, as you have hitherto been.

Your Grace's most faithful and obliged, and by you revived servant,

FR. ST. ALBAN. Gray's-Inn, 9th of October, 1624.



I Do approve very well of your forbearance to move my suits, in regard the duke's return § is so near at hand, which I thought would have been a I AM infinitely bound to your Grace for your late longer matter; and I imagine there is a gratiustitium favours. I send your Grace a copy of your letter, till he come. I do not doubt but you shall find his signifying his Majesty's pleasure, and of the petition. Grace nobly disposed. The last time you spake The course, I take it, must be, to make a warrant | with him about me, I remember you sent me word, for the execution of the same, by way of reference he thanked you for being so forward for me. Yet to Mr. Chancellor of the exchequer, and Mr. Attor-I could wish, that you took some occasion to speak ney. I most humbly pray your Grace likewise, with him, generally to my advantage, before you to prostrate me at his Majesty's feet, with most move to him any particular suit; and to let me know humble thanks for the grant of my petition, whose how you find him. sweet presence since I discontinued, methinks I am neither amongst the living, nor amongst the dead.

I cannot but likewise gratulate his Majesty on the extreme prosperous success of his business, since this time twelvemonth. I know I speak it in a dangerous time, because the die of the Low-Countries

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My lord treasurer sent me a good answer touching my moneys. I pray you continue to quicken him, that the king may once clear with me. A fire of old wood needeth no blowing; but old men do. I ever rest

Yours to do you service.

Consultations in Parliament anno 1 Caroli Regis, at Westminster, anno Domini 1625.||
[Found among Lord Bacon's Papers.]

THE Consultations now in parliament may be regulated into these four heads following.

The state of the king in the constant revenue of

his crown.

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1. What it was: and how far the introitus et exitus there ordered. Vide my book of a medium for ten years before primo Jacobi regis.

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This may be revoked.

Grants of pensions, now £120,000, before but £18,000. Good times have resumed them upon necessity.

Increase of household, from £45,000 to £80,000

The purveyors more, and the tables less furnished than formerly.

Fruitless ambassages with larger allowance than formerly. To reduce them to the ordinary of the late queen.

Treble increase of the privy purse. Double increase of the treasury of the chamber and great wardrobe. In all, by not using the best course of assignments, whereby the creditor is delayed in his payment, and the king surcharged in the price. The exchequer-man making his best profit from the king's wants.

Subsidies and fifteenths, spent only in defence of the states, or aid of our allies. Tonnage and poundage employed in guard of the seas. Loans rarely, and that employed entirely for the public. Imposition by prerogative of old custom, rated easily by the book of rates, if any, either limited to time or measure.

Custom enhanced by the new books of rates. Impositions and monopolies multiplied; and this settled to continue by grants.

Tonnage and poundage levied, though no act of parliament, nor the seas guarded. The times, the ways, and the persons, that induce these.

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From Paris, whither the duke of Buckingham went in May, 1625, to conduct the new queen to England.

This parliament met on the 18th of June, and was dissolved August 12, 1625.

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2. Count Mansfield.

3. Land soldiers in the last fleet.

The design, where they were sent.

The council that directed it.

The success of the action, and the return of the persons in number, and the loss.

The number and quantity employed severally.

The manner of embarking these ships, and what prejudice and discouragement of trade.

The council, that directed such employments.

The several successes, as at Algier, and Cadiz.


Strangers, as

6. Allies.

7. Enemies.

Hired by contract to serve, and how used: or
Taken as prize: if so,

How then delivered and dealt withal in the course of justice. What success hath followed upon injustice done them: as the arrest of our goods in France and Germany, whereby our goods are

at a stand for vent.

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Under this head will fall the complaint of Dover.

How formerly we


The cause of the
good success then.


In what condi-

Condition we now
stand by.

A nation feared, renowned, victorious.

It made the Netherlands there a state when it was none.

Recovered Henry IV. of France's kingdom, when he had nothing left but the town of Dieppe.

Conquered the invincible navy of Spain in 1588.

Took towns in Portugal in the year following, and marched 100 miles upon the firm land.

Fired, or brought away, the Spanish navy before Cadiz, and sacked the town. Took the Spanish ships daily, and spoiled the Port-Towns of the West-Indies, never losing but one ship during all the Spanish wars.

Reduced the ambition of that king for a fifth monarchy to so low an ebb, that in one year he paid 2500 millions of ducats for interest, so as after he was inforced to beg treaties of peace, in low terms, at the last queen regent's hand.

A carriage and readiness in the people to assist their sovereign in their purse and person.

A wisdom and gravity of council, who ordered nothing but by public debate, and then assisted by the military professors, either by land or sea, of the best repute, and such only employed.


Loss in reputation by the ill success.

The reasons.

In the voyage of Algier.

In the Palatinate.

In the journey with Mansfield.
In this last to Cadiz.*

The uncheerfulness we have either to adventure our purses or goods, occasioned by a distrust we have of the successes. The want of the like courses and counsels, that were formerly used.

I could wish, that for every of these four heads there were a particular committee to examine an apt report for the houses; and the houses, upon every report, to put itself into a committee of the whole assembly; and after a full and deliberate debate, to order a model, or form, for a conference with the lords: and so, together, humbly to present unto his Majesty a remonstrance of their labour; offering withal a serious consultation and debate amongst themselves for the finding out the fittest manner both for the defence of the state and our allies, reformation of the errors, and a constant way to raise such supplies of money and necessaries, as may enable his Majesty to proceed cheerfully, and I hope assuredly, in this his glorious action, not only for himself and the state, but for all that profess the same religion, and are like to be overwhelmed in the ambition of the Spanish monarchy.



LET me entreat you to despatch that warrant of
*In October, 1625.
+From Gorhambury.

Sir James Lord Ley, advanced from the post of lord chief justice of the king's bench, on the 20th of December, 1624, to that of lord treasurer; and created earl of Marlborough on the 5th of February, 1625-6.

a petty sum, that it may help to bear my charge of coming up to London. The duke, you know, loveth me, and my lord treasurer ‡ standeth now towards me in very good affection and respect.§ You that are the third person in these businesses, I

His lordship had not been always in that disposition towards the lord viscount St. Alban; for the latter, in a letter to this lord treasurer, severely expostulated with him about his unkindness and injustice.

assure myself, will not be wanting; for you have professed and showed, ever since I lost the seal, your good will towards me. I rest

Your affectionate and assured friend, &c.


To Sir Robert Pye. Gor. 1625.



THIS gentleman, the bearer hereof, Mr. Colles by name, is my neighbour. He is commended for a civil young man. I think he wanteth no metal, but he is peaceable. It was his hap to fall out with Mr. Matthew Francis, serjeant at arms, about a toy; the one affirming, that a hare was fair killed, and the other foul. Words multiplied, and some blows passed on either side. But since the first falling out, the serjeant hath used towards him divers threats and affronts; and, which is a point of danger, sent to him a letter of challenge: but Mr. Colles, doubting the contents of the letter, refused to receive it. Motions have been made also of reconcilement, or of reference to some gentlemen of the country not partial: but the serjeant hath refused all, and now, at last, sueth him in the earl marshal's The gentleman saith, he distrusteth not his cause upon the hearing; but would be glad to avoid restraint, or long and chargeable attendance. me therefore pray your good lordship to move the noble earl + in that kind, to carry a favourable hand towards him, such as may stand with justice and the order of that court. I ever rest


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that liberty, against Sir Nicholas, which abated by his death; then another against Sir Edmund, which by the demise of the king, and by reason of the adjournment of the late term, hath had no farther proceeding, but that day is given to plead.

Concerning your other letter, I humbly thank your lordship for your favourable and good wishes to me, though I, knowing my own unaptness to so great an employment, should be most heartily glad, if his Majesty had, or yet would choose, a man of more merit. But, if otherwise, humbleness and submission becomes the servant, and to stand in that station where his Majesty will have him. But as for the request you make for your servant, though I protest I am not yet engaged by promise to any, because I hold it too much boldness towards my master, and discourtesy towards my lord keeper,§ to dispose of places while he had the seal: yet in respect I have some servants, and some of my kindred, apt for the place you write of, and have been already so much importuned by noble persons, when I lately was with his Majesty at Salisbury, as it will be hard for me to give them all denial; I am not able to discern how I can accommodate your servant; though for your sake, and in respect of the former knowledge myself have had of the merit and worth of the gentleman, I should be most ready and willing to perform your desire, if it were in my power. And so, with remembrance of my service to your lordship, I remain,

At your lordship's commandment,


Kingsbury, October 29, 1625.

To the right honourable and my very good lord the viscount St. Alban.



I RECEIVED from your lordship two letters, the one of the 23d, the other of the 28th of this month. To the former I do assure your lordship I have not heard any thing of any suits or motion, either touching the reversion of your honours, or the rent of your farm of petty writs; and, if I had heard any thing thereof, I would not have been unmindful of that caveat, which heretofore you gave in by former letters, nor slack to do you the best service I might.

The debt of Sir Nicholas Bacon resteth as it did; for in the latter end of king James's time, it exhibited a quo warranto in the exchequer, touching

* Sir Edward Sackville succeeded to that title on the death of his brother Richard, March 28, 1624.

Arundel, earl marshal.

That of the great seal, of which Sir Thomas Coventry was three days after made lord keeper, on the 1st of November, 1625.


GOOD MR. ROGEr Palmer,

I THANK God, by means of the sweet air of the country, I have obtained some degree of health. Sending to the court, I thought I would salute you: and I would be glad, in this solitary time and place, to hear a little from you how the world goeth, according to your friendly manner heretofore. Fare ye well most heartily.

Your very affectionate and assured friend,

Gorhambury, Oct. 29, 1625.


I COULD not but signify unto your Grace my rejoicing, that God hath sent your Grace a son and

Bishop Williams, who had resigned the great seal on the 25th of October, 1625, to Sir John Suckling, who brought his Majesty's warrant to receive it, dated at Salisbury on the 23d of that month.

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