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this that likewise hath made the foreigner recipro- | persuaded, if a penny in the pound which hath cally more plausible with the rebel. Therefore a been spent in pœna, for this kind of war is but toleration of religion, for a time, not definite, except pœna, a chastisement of rebels, without fruit or emoit be in some principal towns and precincts, after lument to this state, had been spent in præmio, that the manner of some French edicts, seemeth to me is, in rewarding, things had never grown to this to be a matter warrantable by religion, and in policy extremity. But to speak forwards. The keeping of absolute necessity. And the hesitation in this of the principal Irish persons in terms of contentpoint, I think, hath been a great casting back of the ment, and without cause of particular complaint; affairs there. Neither if any English papist or re- and generally the carrying of an even course becusant shall, for liberty of his conscience, transfer tween the English and the Irish; whether it be in his person, family, and fortunes thither; do I hold competition, or whether it be in controversy, as if they it a matter of danger, but expedient to draw on un- were one nation, without that same partial course dertaking, and to further population. Neither if which hath been held by the governors and counRome will cozen itself, by conceiving it may be some sellors there, that some have favoured the Irish, degree to the like toleration in England, do I hold and some contrary, is one of the best medicines of it a matter of any moment; but rather a good mean that state. And as for other points of contentment, to take off the fierceness and eagerness of the as the countenancing of their nobility as well in humour of Rome, and to stay further excommunica- this court as there; the imparting of knighthood; tions or interdictions for Ireland. But there would the care of education of their children, and the like go hand in hand with this, some course of advancing points of comfort and allurement; they are things religion indeed, where the people is capable thereof; which fall into every man's consideration. as the sending over some good preachers, especially of that sort which are vehement and zealous persuaders, and not scholastical, to be resident in principal towns; endowing them with some stipends out of her Majesty's revenues, as her Majesty hath most religiously and graciously done in Lancashire: and the recontinuing and replenishing the college begun at Dublin, the placing of good men to be bishops in the sees there, and the taking care of the versions of Bibles and catechisms, and other books of instruction, into the Irish language; and the like religious courses, both for the honour of God, and for the avoiding of scandal and insatisfaction here, by the show of a toleration of religion in some parts there.
For the extirpating of the seeds of troubles, I suppose the main roots are but three. The first, the ambition and absoluteness of the chief of the families and septs. The second, the licentious idleness of their kernes and soldiers, that lie upon the country, by cesses and such like oppressions. And the third, the barbarous laws, customs, their brehon laws, habits of apparel, their poets or heralds that enchant them in savage manners, and sundry other such dregs of barbarism and rebellion, which by a number of politic statutes of Ireland, meet to be put in execution, are already forbidden; unto which such additions may be made as the present time requireth. But the deducing of this branch requireth a more particular notice of the state and manners there, than falls within my compass.
For justice the barbarism and desolation of the country considered, it is not possible they should find any sweetness at all of justice; if it shall be, which hath been the error of times past, formal, | and fetched far off from the state; because it will require running up and down for process; and give occasion for polling and exactions by fees, and many other delays and charges. And therefore there must be an interim in which the justice must be only summary; the rather, because it is fit and safe for a time the country do participate of martial government; and therefore, I could wish in every principal town or place of habitation, there were a captain or governor; and a judge, such as recorders and learned stewards are here in corporations, who may have a prerogative commission to hear and determine secundum sanam discretionem; and as near as may be to the laws and customs of England; and that by bill or plaint, without original writ; reserving from their sentence matter of freehold and inheritance, to be determined by a superior judge itinerant; and both sentences, as well of the baily wick judge, as itinerant, to be reversed, if cause be, before the council of the province to be established there with fit instructions.
For obligation and reward; it is true, no doubt, which was anciently said, that a state is contained in two words, præmium and pœna; and I am
For plantations and buildings, I do find it strange that in the last plot for the population of Munster, there were limitations how much in demesne, and how much in farm, and how much in tenancy; again, how many buildings should be erected, how many Irish in mixture should be admitted, and other things foreseen almost to curiosity: but no restraint that they might not build sparsim at their pleasure; nor any condition that they should make places fortified and defensible: which omission was a strange neglect and secureness, to my understanding. So as for this last point of plantations and buildings, there be two considerations which I hold most material; the one for quickening, and the other for assuring. The first is, that choice be made of such persons for the government of towns and places, and such undertakers be procured, as be men gracious and well beloved, and are like to be well followed. Wherein for Munster, it may be, because it is not res integra; but that the former undertakers stand interessed, there will be some difficulty; but surely, in mine opinion, either by agreeing with them, or by overruling them with a parliament in Ireland, which in this course of a politic proceeding, infinite occasions will require speedily to be held, it will be fit to supply fit qualified persons for undertakers. The other, that it be
not left, as heretofore, to the pleasure of the undertakers and adventurers, where and how to build and plant; but that they do it according to a prescript or formulary. For first, the places, both maritime and inland, which are fittest for colonies or garrisons, as well for doubt of the foreigner, as for keeping the country in bridle, will be found, surveyed, and resolved upon and then that the patentees be tied to build in those places only, and to fortify as shall be thought convenient. And lastly, it followeth of course, in countries of new populations, to invite and provoke inhabitants by ample liberties and charters.
LIX. TO MY LORD OF CANTERBURY [DR. WHITGIFT.]*
IT MAY PLEASE YOUR GRACE,
I HAVE Considered the objections, perused the statutes, and framed the alterations, which I send, still keeping myself within the privity of a letter, and form of narration; not entering into a form of argument or disputation: for, in my poor conceit, it is somewhat against the majesty of princes' actions, to make too curious and striving apologies, but rather to set them forth plainly, and so as there may appear harmony and constancy in them, so that one part upholdeth another. And so I wish Your Grace all prosperity. From my poor lodging, this, &c.
Your Grace's most dutiful pupil and servant.
LX. TO SIR THOMAS LUCY.†
THERE was no news better welcome to me this long time, than that of the good success of my kinsman; wherein if he be happy, he cannot be happy alone, it consisting of two parts. And I render you no less kind thanks for your aid and favour towards him, than if it had been for myself; assuring you that this bond of alliance shall on my part tie me to give all the tribute to your good fortune upon all occasions, that my poor strength can yield. I send you, so required, an abstract of the lands of inheritance; and one lease of great value, which my kinsman bringeth; with a note of the tenures, values, contents, and state, truly and perfectly drawn; whereby you may perceive the land is good land, and well countenanced by scope of acres, woods, and royal* Rawley's Resuscitatio.
ties; though the total of the rents be set down as it now goeth, without improvement: in which respect it may somewhat differ from your first note. Out of this, what he will assure in jointure, I leave it to his own kindness; for I love not to measure affection. To conclude, I doubt not your daughter might have married to a better living, but never to a better life; having chosen a gentleman bred to all honesty, virtue, and worth, with an estate convenient. And if my brother or myself were either thrivers, or fortunate in the queen's service, I would hope there should be left as great a house of the Cokes in this gentleman, as in your good friend Mr. AttorneyGeneral. But sure I am, if Scriptures fail not, it will have as much of God's blessing; and sufficiency is ever the best feast, &c.
A LETTER OF RECOMMENDATION OF HIS SERVICE TO THE EARL OF NORTHUMBERLAND, A FEW DAYS BEFORE QUEEN ELIZABETH'S DEATH.
IT MAY PLEASE YOUR GOOD LORDSHIP,
As the time of sowing a seed is known, but the time of coming up and disclosing is casual, or according to the season; so I am witness to myself, that there hath been covered in my mind a long time a seed of affection and zeal towards your lordship, sown by the estimation of your virtues, and your particular honours and favours to my brother deceased, and myself; which seed still springing, now bursteth forth into this profession. And to be plain with your lordship, it is very true, and no winds or noises of civil matters can blow this out of my head or heart, that your great capacity and love towards studies and contemplations of a higher and worthier nature, than popular, a nature rare in the world, and in a person of your lordship's quality almost singular, is to me a great and chief motive to draw my affection and admiration towards you. And therefore, good my lord, if I may be of any use to your lordship, by my head, tongue, or pen, means, or friends, I humbly pray you to hold me your own; and herewithal, not to do so much disadvantage to my good mind, nor partly to your own worth, as to conceive that this commendation of my humble service proceedeth out of any straits of my occasions, but merely out of an election, and indeed the fulness of my heart. And so wishing your lordship all prosperity, I continue, &c. March 1608.
LETTERS IN THE REIGN OF KING JAMES.
LXII. TO MR. FOWLYS.+
THE occasion awaketh in me the remembrance of the constant and mutual good offices, which passed between my good brother and yourself; whereunto, as you know, I was not altogether a stranger; though the time and design, as between brethren, made me more reserved. But well do I bear in mind the great opinion which my brother, whose judgment I much reverence, would often express to me, of your extraordinary sufficiency, dexterity, and temper, which he had found in you, in the business and service of the king our sovereign lord. This latter bred in me an election, as the former gave an inducement for me, to address myself to you; and to make this signification of my desire towards a mutual entertainment of good affection and correspondence between us: hoping that both some good effect may result of it towards the king's service; and that for our particulars, though occasion give you the precedence of farthering my being known, by good note, unto the king; so no long time will intercede before I on my part shall have some means given to requite your favours, and to verify your commendation. And so with my loving commendations, good Mr. Fowlys, I leave you to God's goodness.
From Gray's-Inn, 27 March, 1603.
LXIII. TO MR. FOWLYS.§
I DID write unto you yesterday by Mr. Lake, who was despatched hence from their lordships, a letter of reviver of those sparks of former acquaintance between us in my brother's time; and now, upon the same confidence, finding so fit a messenger, I would not fail to salute you; hoping it will fall out so happily, as that you shall be one of the king's
Upon the death of queen Elizabeth Mr. Fowlys was sent out of Scotland with letters to divers of the lords of the privy council; soon after whose arrival the lord treasurer, the lord high admiral, and Sir Robert Cecil, principal secretary of state, returned a large letter of thanks, and of advice to the king concerning the then posture of affairs. He was afterwards created a baronet by the name of Sir David Fowlys of Ingleby, in the north riding of Yorkshire, where he had seated himself, and where his posterity now remain. Stephens.
Mr. Anthony Bacon, the elder and only brother to our author, of the whole blood, reported to have been equal to him in height of wit, though inferior in the improvements of learning and knowledge. Sir Henry Wotton observes, that he was a gentleman of impotent feet, but of a nimble head, through whose hands ran all the intelligences with Scotland. Stephens. Rawley's Resuscitatio.
servants which his Majesty will first employ here with us; where I hope to have some means not to be barren in friendship towards you.
We all thirst after the king's coming, accounting all this but as the dawning of the day before the rising of the sun, till we have his presence. And though now his Majesty must be "Janus bifrons," to have a face to Scotland, as well as to England, yet "quod nunc instat agendum :" the expectation is here that he will come in state, and not in strength.|| So for this time I commend you to God's goodness. 28 March, 1603.
LXIV. TO SIR ¶ THOMAS CHALONER, THEN
FOR Our money matters, I am assured you received no insatisfaction: for you know my mind, and you know my means; which now the openness of the time caused by this blessed consent, and peace, will increase; and so our agreement according to your time, be observed. For the present, according to the Roman adage, that "one cluster of grapes ripeneth best besides another," I know you hold me not unworthy, whose mutual friendship you should cherish; and I, for my part, conceive good hope, that you are likely to become an acceptable servant to the king our master: not so much for any way made heretofore, which, in my judgment, will make no great difference, as for the stuff and sufficiency which I know to be in you; and whereof, I know, his Majesty may reap great service. And therefore, my general request is, that according to that industrious vivacity which you use towards your friends, you will further his Majesty's good conceit and inclination towards me, to whom words cannot make me known, neither mine own, nor others; but time will, to no disadvantage of any that shall forerun his Majesty's experience, by your testimony and commendation. And though occasion give you prece
My lord Bacon, in his history of king Henry VII. observes the like conduct in that wise prince, in order to quiet the fears of the people, and disperse the conceit of his coming in by conquest.
Sir Thomas Chaloner was son to Sir Thomas Chaloner, who had behaved himself with great valour, under the command of the emperor Charles V. and the duke of Somerset, and with equal prudence, in the courts of the emperor and king of Spain; whither he was sent ambassador in the begin ning of the reign of queen Elizabeth. The son was, like his father, a gentleman of great parts and abilities, to whose care king James committed the tuition of prince Henry, 17 Aug. 1603. Rymer, xvi. 545. Sir Thomas had, a few years before, made the first discovery of alum mines in this nation, at or near Gisborough in Yorkshire; where some of his name and family still continue. He survived his royal pupil just three years, dying in November, 1615. Stephens. Rawley's Resuscitatio.
dence of doing me this special good office; yet I hope no long time will intercede before I shall have some means to requite your favour and acquit your report. More particularly, having thought good to make oblation of my most humble service to his Majesty by a few lines, I desire your loving care and help, by yourself, or such means as I refer to your discretion, to deliver and present the same to his Majesty's hands: of which letter I send you a copy, that you may know what you carry; and may take of Mr. Matthew the letter itself, if you be pleased to undertake the delivery. Lastly, I do commend to yourself, and such your courtesies as occasion may require, this gentleman Mr. Matthew, eldest son to my lord bishop of Duresme, and my very good friend, assuring you that any courtesy you shall use towards him, you shall use to a very worthy young gentleman, and one, I know, whose acquaintance you will much esteem. And so I ever continue.
LXV. AN OFFER OF SERVICE TO THE KING UPON HIS FIRST COMING IN.*
IT MAY PLEASE YOUR MOST Excellent MaJESTY, It is observed by some, upon a place in the Canticles, "Ego sum flos campi, et lilium convallium,” that, a dispari, it is not said, " Ego sum flos horti, et lilium montium;" because the majesty of that person is not enclosed for a few, nor appropriated to the great. And yet, notwithstanding this royal virtue of access, which both nature and judgment have planted in your Majesty's mind, as the portal of all the rest, could not of itself, my imperfections considered, have animated me to make oblation of myself immediately to your Majesty, had it not been joined with a habit of the like liberty which I enjoyed with my late dear sovereign mistress; a princess happy in all things else, but most happy in such a successor. And yet farther, and more nearly, I was not a little encouraged, not only upon a supposal that unto your Majesty's sacred ear, open to the air of all virtues, there might perhaps have come somet small breath of the good memory of my father, so long a principal counsellor in your kingdom;‡ but also a more particular knowledge of the infinite devotion and incessant endeavours, beyond the strength of his body, and the nature of the times, which appeared in my good brother, Mr. Anthony Bacon, towards your Majesty's service; and were on your Majesty's part, through your singular benignity, by many most gracious and lively significations and favours accepted and acknowledged, beyond the merit of any thing he could effect: which endeavours and duties, for the most part, were common to myself with him, though by design, as between brethren, dissembled. And therefore, most high and mighty king, my most dear and dread sovereign lord, since now the corner-stone is laid of
+ Notice. Sir Tobie Matthew's Collection of Letters, p. 17. Sir N. Bacon, lord keeper of the great seal, from the first to the 21 Elizabeth.
the mightiest monarchy in Europe; and that God above, who hath ever a hand in bridling the floods and motions both of the seas and people's hearts, hath by the miraculous and universal consent, the more strange, because it proceedeth from such diversity of causes, in your coming in, given a sign and token of great happiness in the continuance of your reign; I think there is no subject of your Majesty's which loveth this island, and is not hollow or unworthy, whose heart is not set on fire, not only to bring you peace-offerings, to make you propitious; but to sacrifice himself a burnt-offering or holocaust to your Majesty's service: amongst which number no man's fire shall be more pure and fervent than mine; but how far forth it shall blaze out, that resteth in your Majesty's § employment. So thirsting after the happiness of kissing your royal hand, I continue ever. 1603.
LXVI. A LETTER COMMENDING HIS LOVE TO THE LORD OF|| KINLOSSE, UPON HIS MAJESTY'S ENTRANCE.T
THE present occasion awakeneth in me a remembrance of the constant amity and mutual good offices, which passed between my brother deceased and your lordship, whereunto I was less strange, than in respect of the time I had reason to pretend; and withal, I call to mind the great opinion which my brother, who seldom failed in judgment of a person, would often express to me of your lordship's great wisdom and soundness, both in head and heart, towards the service and affairs of our sovereign lord the king.
The one of those hath bred in me an election, and the other a confidence to address my good will and sincere affection to your good lordship; not doubting, in regard that my course of life hath wrought me not to be altogether unseen in the matters of the kingdom, that I may be of some use, both in point of service to the king, and in your lordship's particular.
And on the other side, I will not omit humbly to desire your lordship's favour, in farthering a good conceit and impression of my most humble duty and true zeal towards the king; to whose Majesty words cannot make me known, neither mine own nor others but time will, to no disadvantage of any, that shall forerun his Majesty's experience, by their humanity and commendations. And so I commend your good lordship to God's providence and protection.
From Gray's-Inn, &c. 1603.
Pleasure to ordain.
Sir Tobie Matthew.
Edward Bruce Mil. Dom. Kinlosse, Magis. Rotulorum curiæ cancellaria, 19 Jul. 1603. Rymer, xvi. p. 491. Scrip. in sacra, p. 56. Edit. 1654.
LXVII. A LETTER TO DOCTOR MORISON, A * SCOTTISH PHYSICIAN, UPON HIS MAJESTY'S COMING IN.
MR. DR. MORISON,
I HAVE thought good by this my letter to renew this my ancient acquaintance which hath passed between us, signifying my good mind to you to perform to you any good office, for your particular, and my expectation and a firm assurance of the like on your part towards me: wherein I confess you may have the start of me, because occasion hath given you the precedency in investing you with opportunity to use my name well, and by your loving testimony to further á good opinion of me in his Majesty, and the
But I hope my experience of matters here will, with the light of his Majesty's favour, enable me speedily both to requite your kindness, and to acquit and make good your testimony and report. So not doubting to see you here with his Majesty; considering that it belongeth to your art to feel pulses, (and I assure you, Galen doth not set down greater variety of pulses, than do vent here in men's hearts,) I wish you all prosperity, and remain
From my chamber at Gray's-Inn, &c. 1603.
LXVIII. TO MR. DAVIES,† GONE TO MEET THE KING.‡
THOUGH YOU went on the sudden, yet you could not go before you had spoken with yourself to the purpose which I will now write and therefore I know it shall be altogether needless, save that I meant to show you, that I was not asleep. Briefly, I commend myself to your love and the well using my name; as well in repressing and answering for me, if there be any biting or nibbling at it in that place, as in imprinting a good conceit and opinion of me, chiefly in the king, of whose favour I make | myself comfortable assurance, as otherwise in that court and not only so, but generally to perform to me all the good offices which the vivacity of your wit can suggest to your mind, to be performed to one, with whose affection you have so great sympa
* He had held a correspondence with Mr. Anthony Bacon, and was employed to find intelligence from Scotland to the earl of Essex. See "Memoirs of the Reign of Queen Elizabeth from the year 1581, till her death." Vol. I. p. 79, 109, 116.
Mr. Davies having made his way unto the knowledge of king James, by a poem he dedicated unto the late queen, entitled, "Nosce teipsum," was very favourably received by the king; and not long after made his attorney-general in Ireland, and serjeant at law; and in the next reign, was nominated to be chief justice of the king's bench in England upon the displacing of Sir Randal Crew; but died suddenly on 27 December, 1626. He was very conversant with the wits of his time; some of his writings declare his excellency in that kind, as others do his abilities in his own profession. Stephens. Rawley's Resuscitatio. § Ibid.
Henry Piercy, the ninth earl of Northumberland of that name, had not only great learning himself, but was also patron of other learned men, especially mathematicians. And though no man espoused the title of king James to the Eng
THIS alteration is so great, as you might justly conceive some coldness of my affection towards you, if you should hear nothing from me, I living in this place. It is in vain to tell you with what wonderful still and calm this wheel is turned round; which, whether it be a remnant of her felicity that is gone, or a fruit of his reputation that is coming, I will not determine. For I cannot but divide myself between her memory and his name: yet we account it but a fair morn, before sun-rising, before his Majesty's presence: though for my part I see not whence any weather should arise. The papists are contained with fear enough, and hope too much. The French is thought to turn his practice upon procuring some disturbance in Scotland, where crowns may do wonders but this day is so welcome to the nation, and the time so short, as I do not fear the effect. My lord of Southampton expecteth release by the next despatch, and is already much visited and much well-wished. There is continual posting by men of good quality towards the king: the rather, I think, because this spring-time it is but a kind of sport. It is hoped, that as the state here hath performed the part of good attorneys to deliver the king quiet possession of his kingdoms, so the king will redeliver them quiet possession of their places; rather filling places void, than removing men placed. So, &c. 1603.
LXX. TO THE EARL OF NORTHUMBERLAND,|| RECOMMENDING A PROCLAMATION TO BE MADE BY THE KING AT HIS ENTRANCE ¶
IT MAY PLEASE YOUR LORDSHIP,
I Do hold it a thing formal and necessary for the lish throne with a greater zeal than himself, declaring he would remove all impediments by his sword; yet the king, perhaps fearing that one who thought he could confer crowns, might attempt to resume them, caused this great man to be so effectually prosecuted in the star-chamber in the year 1606, upon the supposition of his being privy to the powder-plot, or at least of concealing his cousin Mr. Thomas Piercy, one of the conspirators therein: that he was fined 30,000, and condemned to perpetual imprisonment. But the lord Hay, afterwards created viscount Doncaster and earl of Carlisle, marrying in 1617 his youngest daughter the lady Lucy Piercy, a lady of the most celebrated wit and beauty of any in her times; his release from the Tower was obtained about the year 1621. Though it is said, the earl was with great difficulty prevailed to accept of this favour, because procured by a man he dis dained to own to be so near a relation, as that of a son. Stephens.