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portaretur ad sepeliendum, regio indutus apparatu, coronam in capite habens auream, et chirothecas in manibus, calceamenta auro texta in pedibus et calcaria, annulum magnum in digito, et in manu sceptrum, accinctusque gladio, discooperto vultu jacebat."13

Concerning the younger Henry, who died during his father's lifetime, Matthew Paris says: "Corpus autem in lineis vestibus, quas habuit in consecratione sacro chrismate delibutas, regaliter involutum."14 Of K. John we learn, from the same historian, not only that his body, "regio schemate ornatum, ad Wigorniam delatum est;" but also that, "abbas canonicorum Crokestoniæ peritissimus in medicinis, facta anatomia de corpore regio, ut honestius portaretur, viscera copioso sale conspersa, in sua domo transportata, honorifice fecit sepeliri." 15

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popular accusation of himself, as
the immediate cause. Even con-
cerning K. Stephen, of whose
reign the Saxon chronicle has
given us such a terrible descrip-
tion, I do not remember to have
met with any similar remarks.
Matthew Paris' own opinion is
doubtful: Sperandum est au-
tem, et certissime confidendum,
quod quædam bona opera, quæ
fecit in hac vita, allegabunt pro
eo ante tribunal Jesu Christi ;'
and he specifies the good deeds
which he could recollect;
66 con-
struxit enim abbatiam Cistercien-
sis ordinis de Bello loco; et mo-
riturus domui de Crokestuna
decem librarum terram contulit

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It was usual also to remove the brain; and there is a remarkable circumstance recorded, concerning Henry I. I take the account from Henry of Huntingdon. "Rex namque Henricus obierat: cujus corpus allatum est Rotomagum, et ibi viscera ejus et cerebrum et oculi consepulta sunt. Reliquum autem corpus-coriis taurinis reconditum est causa fœtoris evitandi, qui multus et infinitus jam circumstantes inficiebat. Unde et ipse, qui magno pretio conductus securi caput ejus diffiderat, ut foetidissimum cerebrum extraheret, quamvis linteaminibus caput suum obvol

opulentam." p. 242. He relates however, more hopefully as it were, the vision of a monk some ten years after; to whom the dead king appeared. "Quem monachus recognoscens, ac memoriter recolens, quod mortuus fuisset, scistitabatur ab eo, qualiter se haberet. Cui rex: ita me habeo, quod nemo pejus. Nam hæc mea quæ vides indumenta, adeo ardentia sunt et ponderosa ut nullus qui in sæculo vivit, illa tangere sufficeret præ ardore, vel propter ponderositatem portare, quin protinus moreretur. Sed tamen per Dei clementiam spero et gratiam ineffabilem-me quandoque misericordiam adepturum." Ibid. p. 280.


vision of another monk, recorded by Walter Hemingford, gives a contrary view of the matter. Chron. cap. cvij.

I have mentioned this subject, as being curious and important in

many respects: and I would also
take this opportunity of directing
the reader's attention to the fre-
quent descriptions which he will
find in the middle-age historians,
of visions of purgatory. Some

of these are as horrible in their
details, as the imagination can
conceive. One thing is shewn ;
that the doctrine of purgatory in
those days had not arrived at its
full maturity of correctness, as
afterwards expressed in its seve-
ral details. Thus, we find in
Matthew Paris, the soul of a
certain clerk, enduring punish-
ment: "et cum inquirerem, utrum
misericordiam se aliquando conse-
cuturum speraret, respondit: væ
mihi, væ mihi, scio quod ante diem
judicii omnino misericordiam non
: an autem vel tunc, incer-
tum habeo." p. 157. But this igno-
rance could not be, according to
the doctrine, as it is now settled,
of the church of Rome.

visset, mortuus tamen ea causa pretio male gavisus est." 16

I must not omit to quote a part of the will of K. Richard II. “Item volumus et ordinamus quod corpus nostrum in velveto vel sathano blanio, more regio, vestiatur, et etiam interretur, una cum corona et sceptro regiis deauratis, absque tamen quibuscumque lapidibus: quodque super digitum nostrum, more regio, annulus cum lapide pretioso ponatur."

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The English order quoted above, directs an image of the dead king to be made: thus, for example, it was done for Henry V. "Superposita namque fuerat cistæ, in qua corpus ejus habebatur, quædam imago staturæ et faciei regis mortui simillima, clamyde purpurea satis longa et larga cum furrura de ermyn induta, sceptrum in una manu, et pila rotunda aurea cum cruce infixa in altera, corona aurea in capite, super capellum regni, et sandalis regiis in pedibus impositis." Among the records in the Chapterhouse at Westminster, is an original minute of council for the ceremonial of the funeral of queen Catherine of Arragon: in which, among other matters, it is ordered that there should be provided, "a cast or puffed Ymage of a princesse apparailled in her robes of estate, w' a cronall uppon her hed in her heare, w' rings, gloves, and juells upon her handes." 19


These "effigies" were commonly placed upon the

16 Historiarum. Lib. viij. edit. Savile. p. 221. b. The archdeacon of Huntingdon rather unkindly adds, "Hic est ultimus e multis, quem rex Henricus occidit." See also, ibid. p. 276. Hemingford, chron. Angl. script.

Tom. 2. p. 479. Matt. Paris,
Hist. p. 61.

17 Rymer. Fœdera. Tom. 8.

p. 75.

18 Walsingham, Hist. Angl. p. 407. Holinshed, Vol. 3. .p. 584.

19 Printed in the Archæologia,

tomb afterwards, coloured to represent life, and habited in the proper costume and vestments of the day. Or, they were replaced by others, of a more lasting material, which, where they have been spared to us, still furnish some of the most valuable records of their kind to which it is possible for us to refer. Who is there, having once seen it, who does not remember the most noble and beautiful figure of queen Eleanor, upon her tomb in the confessor's chapel, in Westminster abbey ? 20

When it was necessary to bring the royal corpse from a distance, to the place of sepulture, it was customary at the various places, commonly abbies, where it rested, to meet it with solemn processions: and also, in the towns through which it passed. Thus, for instance, when Edward I. died. "Post principis prædicti decessum, venerabilis pater dominus Petrus cardinalis, et clerus Angliæ, cunctique regni nobiles, qui interesse poterant, obviam corpori undique occurrerunt, solemnes processiones, ad quas venerat, per ecclesias, faciendo."" And it is most probable, that it was not moved on, upon the succeeding day, until after mass had been said. We may conclude this, I think, from Walsingham's statement as to Richard II. "Cujus corpus per loca celeberrima-ubi contigit pernoctare, monstratum est post officium mortuorum, et in crastino post missam peractam.""

I cannot close these remarks upon the Order "de

Vol. 16. p. 23. The ceremonial is directed, not for "queen" Catherine, but for "the right excellent and noble Princesse the Lady Catherine,-late wief to the noble and excellent prince Arthur, etc." 20 Engraved in Stothart's Mo

numental Effigies: a work admirably executed, and of much value.

21 Walsingham. Hist. Angl.

p. 95.

22 Ibid. p.


exequiis regalibus," without reminding the reader, that in various antiquarian publications, there are accounts printed of the opening and examination of royal tombs, which fully prove that the rubric was generally both carefully and accurately observed. One of the most interesting of these accounts, is that of the opening of the tomb of K. Edward I. in the year 1774. In which, passing by the state of the body itself, we find that it "was wrapped up within a large square mantle, of thick linen cloth, diapered, and waxed on its under side. The head and face were entirely covered with a sudarium, or face cloth, of crimson sarcenet,-formed into three folds. When the folds of the external wrapper were thrown back, and the sudarium removed, the corpse was discovered richly habited, adorned with ensigns of royalty. Its innermost covering seemed to have been a very fine linen cerecloth, dressed close to every part of the body, and superinduced with such accuracy and exactness, that the fingers and thumbs of both the hands had each of them a separate and distinct envelope of that material.-Next above the cerecloth was a dalmatic, or tunic, of red silk damask; upon which lay a stole of thick white tissue, about three inches in breadth, crossed over the breast, and extending on each side downwards, nearly as low as the wrist, where both ends. were brought to cross each other. [This stole is minutely described to be jewelled and embroidered.]— Over these habits is the royal mantle, or pall, of rich crimson satin, fastened on the left shoulder with a magnificent fibula of metal gilt with gold.-The corpse from the waist downwards, is covered with a large piece of rich figured cloth of gold, which lies loose over the lower part of the tunic, thighs, legs, and feet, and is tucked down behind the soles of the latter. There did not remain any appearance of gloves: but

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