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Libera nos quaesumus, Domine, ab omnibus malis praeteritis, praesentibus et futuris, et intercedente1 beata et gloriosa semperque virgine, Dei genitrice, Maria, et sanctis Apostolis tuis Petro et Paulo atque Andrea et beatis Confessoribus 2 ill. Da propitius pacem in diebus nostris, ut ope misericordiae tuae adiuti et a peccatis simus liberi semper et ab omni perturbatione securi. Per Dominum 3, etc.

Pax Domini sit semper vobiscum.

R. Et cum Spiritu tuo.


Post haec commonenda est plebs pro ieiunii1 IIIIti VIImi et Xmi mensis temporibus suis sive per scrutinis vel aurium apertionem sive orandum pro infirmis vel ad nuntiandum3 Natalitia Sanctorum.

Post haec communicat Sacerdos cum omni populo.

[Sequuntur quatuordecim collectae ad libitum, ut videtur, post Communionem dicendae 10.


Item Benedictiones super populum 11.
Item sequuntur quatuordecim Collectae 12.]

ordinibus sacris cum omni populo. "populum post communionem. congruas.

10 Desunt tertia decima et quarta. 12 Habet quindecim non in omnibus




(Latin and English.)

Actio (Rom.). The Canon of the Mass. The title Infra actionem is commonly prefixed to the paragraph Communicantes (p. 328). Infra and intra appear to have been used almost interchangeably in early ecclesiastical writers. [Bona, de Reb. Liturg., lib. ii. c. xi. § 1, note 3, ed. Sala.] Alb. An ecclesiastical vestment,

which seems to have been at first universally of linen, as it still is in the Western Church. The corresponding vestment in the East is the Stoicharion (σroixáplov, q.v.). It also seems to have been more full and flowing in early times than it afterwards became. In its normal form it is a long, close-fitting, linen vestment, with tight sleeves, confined at the waist by a girdle: and it is worn under all the other vestments, except the amice. Alia oratio (Moz.). The second prayer, i. e. that which follows the oratio missae, in the Mozarabic Liturgy, in the part answering to the beginning of the Missa Fidelium. Alleluia.

The special liturgical use of this exclamation of praise seems to be connected with the Gospel. It is true that in the

Greek Liturgies (S. James, S. Mark, and S. Chrysostom) it is also found in connexion with the Great Entrance, forming the conclusion of the Cherubic Hymn; but this is over and above its

chief use. In the Liturgies of Group I and of the Roman family, and in S. Mark's, it was sung before the Gospel: in the Mozarabic, and therefore probably in the Gallican (though of this we cannot be absolutely certain), it was sung after it. In the Coptic Liturgies however, and in the Ethiopic, the Tersanctus is found before and after the Gospel respectively in place of the Alleluia; and in the Eastern Syrian Group other hymns of praise hold the same place.

There were different customs too as to the seasons when it should be sung. In some churches its use was confined to the great festal season between Easter and Pentecost in others it was sung all the year round, except during Lent.

Ambo, a raised desk, or pulpit, from which the Lections, and sometimes other parts of the service, were read or chanted. Amice (amictus). A square piece of linen worn upon the neck and shoulders, put on before all the other vestments.

Anaphora. The more solemn portion of the Liturgy, the central point of which is the Great Oblation. It commences with the words Sursum Corda,' or their equivalents, which occur in all Liturgies, and includes the rest of the service to the end. In the sacrificial language of the LXX. προσφέρειν is used of the offerer bringing the victim to present before the altar, ἀναφέρειν is used of the Priest offering up the selected portion upon the altar (see for instance Lev. ii. 14, 16; iii. 1, 5).

Anba (Copt.). i.q. Abba, Father; the title given to a Bishop. Antidoron. In the Greek Church what remains of the five Oblates, after the portions intended for consecration have been cut out and placed on the Paten (see pp. 84-88), is distributed to the people. This hallowed, though unconsecrated, bread is called the Antidoron. A similar custom seems to have prevailed in France and Spain, and to exist still in the Armenian and Coptic Churches. Antiphona. In its most familiar meaning this name is given to the verse which is said at the beginning and end of Psalms and Canticles in the Daily Offices, and which serves to give them a special significance appropriate to particular days or seasons. reference to the Eucharistic Liturgies however it has either a general meaning equivalent to anthem,' or a special meaning applying to the Introit. A notion of alternate singing, or of repetition, is involved in the word. The Roman Introit consists of a verse (often called specially the Introit'), followed by a verse of a Psalm and the Gloria Patri, after which the first verse is repeated (cf. p. 292).


The Greek ἀντίφωνον, three of which together, having each an appropriate prayer (see pp. 92, 93), answer to the Roman Introit,

consists of several versicles with a constant response interpolated (see under ἀντίφωνον).

[For further information see Smith's Dict. of Christian Antiquities, s.v.; and Dissert. I. on The Psalms as employed in the Offices of the Church' in Neale's Commentary on the Psalms, vol. i. P. 34.] Antiphonarium.

(a) The book containing the parts of the mass sung by the choir, i. e. Introits, Offertories, etc.; another name for which was the Gradual.' (B) The book containing the Antiphons of the Daily Offices, and the Responsories; which was also called Cantatorium.' Apertio aurium. The ceremony of touching the ears and eyes of a Candidate for Baptism, pronouncing at the same time the word Ephphatha. In preparation for this, some days before, a formal instruction on the Gospels was publicly given: the old form of which may be seen in the Gelasian Sacramentary. [Muratori, de Lit. Romana, col. 537-] Apologia (Sacerdotis). The Confession of the Priest. Apostolus. The Epistle (in the Liturgy). Sometimes also the book containing the Epistles. Apparitio. The Epiphany, or manifestation of the Lord Jesus Christ. Ark (Eth.). It seems uncertain exactly what this vessel is. Renaudot says (vol. i. p. 498), • Fortasse ... vas majus aliquod, quo discus et calix contineretur.' Rodwell, in his translation of the Liturgy (p. 4, note o), says that the Ethiopic word is the same as is used in Heb. ix. 4 of the pot in which the manna was preserved. It is here to be understood' (he proceeds) of the vessel in which the bread intended for consecration is placed, together probably with the paten.' May it be a vessel for the Reserved Sacrament?

Audientes (see under ἀκροώμενοι).


Baini (Copt.) The tenth month of the Coptic Calendar, answering to parts of our May and June. Their year commences with the 29th or 30th of August. Benedictio.

(a) In the general sense of the term, which we may take to be, as defined by S. Ambrose (de Bened. Patriarc. c. 2), Sanctificationis et gratiarum votiva collatio, Benedictions occur in all Liturgies, and often at more points than one of the service. The two most noticeable occasions are (i) in connexion with the Communion of the People, either before or after it; (ii) at the Dismissal.

(B) In the Gallican Church Benedictio is often used as the name of the Benedicite, or Canticum trium Puerorum.


Calix. The Chalice. Canon. A fixed formula. The term admits of many ecclesiastical applications, but in the foregoing Liturgies it will be found used in two senses only, viz. (a) (Rom.), that part of the Liturgy which includes the Consecration, Great Oblation, and Intercession, beginning with the words Te igitur and ending with the Lord's Prayer and its Embolismus. It is divided into ten portions or paragraphs, known usually by their first words. It is often popularly taken as if it included the whole of the remaining portion of the service, but this is not strictly correct. Nor must the word be understood as synonymous with Anaphora,' which is more comprehensive, including the Preface and Triumphal Hymn before the Canon and the Communion with its preparatory ritual, and Post-Communion, after it. The name is sometimes given to the corresponding part of the


Gallican and Mozarabic Liturgies; but improperly, inasmuch as here the forms were variable, all but the formula of Consecration.

(B) (East-Syr.) In this family the invariable doxology at the end of the Prayers, or elsewhere, is called the Canon.' Catechumen. One under training for admission to the Church by Baptism. (For full information see Smith's Dict. of Christian Ant. s. v.; or Bingham, Bk. x. ch. i. ii.) Catholica (W. Syr.). A sort of

address or exhortation said by the Deacon, while the Priest was performing the Fraction, etc. (see P. 77). Catholicon (Copt.). The Lection

taken out of the Catholic Epistles. Chalice. The cup in which the wine (or wine mingled with water, in all ancient Liturgies but the Armenian1) is consecrated. Chasuble (in the West, casula; in the East, φελώνιον or φαινόλιον). The upper and principal vestment of the Priest. Its early shape appears to have been circular, with a hole in the centre through which the head was passed; and adorned before and behind with a Y-shaped cross, or yoke. Cherubic (Hymn). See 'Hymn.' Cinerum Feria Quarta. AshWednesday.

Cochlear. The spoon with which in the Eastern Churches the consecrated elements are administered together to the communi


Collecta. The primary meaning of this word seems to be the assembling of the people for divine

1 It has been inferred that the ancient Church of Ireland did not practise this rite, on the strength of the absence of any reference to it in the Stowe (Irish) Missal. Such evidence is of course noteworthy, but perhaps hardly conclusive by itself for the practice of the whole early Irish Church.

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