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you to give them these things with your own hand, to enhance the value of the present."

And, though already tainted with some error, the truth which Rome dispensed in the sixth century was mainly that which we now hold. Her errors are all dated. Transubstantiation was never broached until England had been reconverted, and it took more than four centuries to settle, until at last it was adopted by the fourth Lateran Council in A.D. 1215. So with one thing after another that is distinctively Papal, the claim of "semper eadem " being a highly absurd one, in the light of history. It cannot be denied, indeed, that there was some taint already. The Gospel had to fight its way in Rome through the old prejudices of the City, and it was a maxim of some of its early promoters to do as little violence to these prejudices as possible. Barnabas might be confounded with Jupiter, and Paul with Mercurius. St. Peter stood at the gate instead of Cardea; St. Rocque or St. Sebastian in the bedroom instead of the Phrygian Penates; St. Nicholas was the Sign of the Vessel instead of Castor and Pollux ! Doctrines also were affected, Gregory himself establishing some belief in Purgatory, though without the blasphemous additions which practically led to the Reformation.

But, in the main, it was the truth that we received, and we see how great was Gregory's solicitude that the Scriptures should be known and prized. England was no such prize then, though kings, from the first, became the nursing fathers that prophecy had spoken of. Once when a panic came by reason of a plague, it was attempted to revive the old idolatry, and there was very little reference to Rome at first. It was pestilential, and the Alps were formidable, and often fatal to travellers. The seas, too, were full of danger. It was a weary way from Calais to Marseilles, one of the usual routes, and, as Mr. Blunt says, "If the political aspect of things rendered a Mayor suspicious somewhere, it might be worse than a weary way."

So things were left to shape themselves very largely, without a great deal of reference to Rome, both good and

evil coming of this, and we may sing Wordsworth's ode without much misgiving :

"For ever hallowed be this morning fair,

Blest be the unconscious shore on which ye tread,
And blest the silver cross, which ye instead
Of martial banner in procession bear;
The cross preceding Him who floats in air,
The pictured Saviour! by Augustine led
They come and onward travel without dread,
Chanting in barbarous ears a tuneful prayer,
Sung for themselves and those whom they would free;
Rich conquest waits them :-the tempestuous sea
Of ignorance that ran so rough and high,
And heeded not the voice of clashing swords,
These good men humble by a few bare words,
And calm with fear of God's Divinity."

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We shall see later on, however, that the real influence of the "life-full Word in our country was due far more to Iona than Canterbury. Augustine himself also was not a man to be specially proud of, representing as he did some of the worst faults of Rome. He drew back from his enterprise at the beginning; he claimed additional power over his companions from Gregory; he had to be warned that he was not to be puffed up by the wonders which had been wrought in Britain; he treated the remnant of British Christians in Wales with haughty severity, and uttered a malediction against them which sanctioned, if it did not instigate, their massacre later on. Dean Stanley, indeed, who, as Canon of Canterbury, would naturally look at him in the most favourable light, acknowledges that he was often thinking of himself or his Order when we should have wished him to be thinking of the great cause he had in hand, and that he was not a man of any great elevation of character.*

*Historical Memorials of Canterbury.

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"The Word which they had longed to hear,
Had come at last, the life-full Word,
Which they had often almost heard
In some deep silence of the breast;
For with a sense of dim unrest,
That Word unborn had often wrought,
And struggled in the womb of thought;
And lo, it now was born indeed;
Here was the answer to their need."


"We should regard St. Columba and his associates with a reverence which we should refuse to personages merely historic; inasmuch as there can be no just comparison between the regenerator and the destroyer of a people; between the enlightened missionary and the conqueror."-LARDNER.

We must turn now in quite a new direction to discover the genesis of the first vernacular paraphrase or poem based on the Scriptures, for this is all that Cadmon's work can be called, though sometimes spoken of as a translation. So far we have been occupied mainly with the South of England, but we must go to the North for the first effort of this kind, and we shall find that we owe it, not to Augustine, or any of those who preceded him, but to Columba, Chief and Saint, and by a direct spiritual genealogy to St. Patrick and Ireland.

The story of Patrick's life is that of a Heaven-sent and successful missionary. Whether he belonged to Brittany, Scotland, or Cumberland is doubtful,* but

The probabilities are in favour of his being born at Dumbarton in 360. He was a Roman citizen of some rank.

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