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There is no evidence that the missals of Bangor and Lincoln were ever printed; at least no record or trace of either has been discovered.



HE next and the last book in the archbishop's constitution is the Manual; of which Lyndwood says: "Manuale, sic dictum a manu, quia assidue habetur ad manum, et in eo continebuntur omnia quæ spectant ad sacramentorum, et sacramentalium ministrationem. Item benedictiones tam fontium quam aliorum secundum usum ecclesiasticum benedicendorum." The statute does not make mention of the processional, and Lyndwood goes on to say that under the title of manual it also is included. But as they certainly were distinct, and the object of the canonist was rather to prove the necessity of furnishing under this order all requisite service books, I shall first speak of the manual by itself and presently of the processional.

The explanation which Lyndwood gives is in a general way sufficiently correct: the manual does contain the offices and rites and ceremonies, which the parish-priest in the discharge of his ordinary duties would be called upon to perform. In it were to be found the orders for baptism, matrimony, visitation of the sick, churching of women, extreme unction, and burial. But besides these were also many others, which would be less frequently re

quired; as well as portions of the mass upon great occasions, with which were mingled some important solemnities. But I can give no better account of the manual than its own table of contents will supply taken from an edition in 4to., of which the title is "Manuale ad usum percelebris ecclesie Sarisburiensis: Rothomagi recenter impressum, necnon multis mendis tersum atque emundatum typis Nicholai Rufi, M.D. xliij." At the end: "Explicit manuale ad usum insignis ecclesie Sarisburiensis, tam in cantu quam in litera diligentissime recognitum: et nusquam antehac elimatius impressum. In quo ea quæ servat ecclesiasticus ritus ordine congruo connectuntur. Excusum Rothomagi," &c.

The table of contents is :Benedictio salis et aquæ. fo. ij.

Aspersio aquæ benedictæ tempore paschali. fo. iij. Benedictio panis dominicis diebus. fol. v. et lvij. Cantus evangelii Liber generationis qui in nocte nativ. Domini canitur. eodem.

Lectio alternatim cantanda eadem nocte. viij. Cantus evangelii Factum est autem, in nocte epiph. cantandus. X.

Benedictio luminis in festo purificationis beatæ Mariæ. xiij.

Servitium quatuor temporum in capite jejunii cum bened. cinerum. xvj.

Benedictio frondium in dominica palmarum. xviij. Servitium in cœna Domini.


Servitium in vigil. paschæ. XXV.

Ordo ad faciendum catechumenum. xxxiiij.

Benedictio fontis. xxxvij.

De baptismo. xliij.

De purific. mulierum.33 xlv.

Ordo sponsalium.34 xlvj.

Servitium peregrinorum. viij.

Benedictio ensis novi militis. lxiij.

Benedictio carnium in die paschæ. lxiij.

Benedictio carnis, casei, butyri, ovorum sive pastillarum pasch. lxiiij.

Benedictio novorum fructuum. eodem.

Benedictio ad omnia quæcumque volueris. eodem. Benedictio seminis.


Benedictio pomorum in die S. Jacobi apostoli.


Benedictio elemosynæ. lxv.

Benedictio scuti et baculi ad duellum.

Benedictio oculorum infirmorum. lxvj.

Benedictio navis. eodem.


Benedictiones mensæ, et gratiarum actiones. lxvij. et lxviij.

Servitium includendorum. lxix.

Præfationes. lxxv. et lxxvj.

Canon cum rubrica a novo incipientibus commodis

sima. lxxviij.

Ordo ad visitandum infirmum. lxxx.

Extrema unctio.


Commendatio animarum. cj.

Rubrica de vigil. mortuorum. cxij.

Vigiliæ mortuorum.35 cxiij.

Psalmi cantandi in commendatione animarum. cxxix.

Missa pro defunctis. cxxxiiij.

33 "Ordo ad purificandam mulierem post partum." Edit. Douay, 1604.

34"Ordo ad faciendum spon

salia, sive matrimonium." Douay, 1604.


"Preces post egressum animæ." Douay, 1604.

Inhumatio defuncti. cxliiij.
Benedictio tumuli. clij.

Missa de sancta cruce. cliij.

Missa de beata Maria. eodem.

Epistola cum evangelio de Trinitate. clv.

Missa de sancto Spiritu.


Confirmatio puerorum. clvj.

Benedictiones omnium rerum ecclesiasticarum. clvij.

Benedictio ad omnia. clxj.

Benedictio campanæ.

Compotus. clxiij.


Modus separandi leprosos. clxiiij.

Forma testamenti. clxvj.

Forma bannorum proclamatorum. clxvij.

Some of the above offices although more properly they belong to the missal, as the canon and the votive masses, or again to the pontifical, as the order of confirmation, were yet generally included in the manual during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, for the convenience and instruction of the parishpriest. They are in three editions now before me, all of 1554.36 But after the revision of the service

36 Viz. "Londini, Kingston et Henricus Sutton impress." (in the colophon.) "Londini recenter impressum." (Title.) And "Londini nouiter Impressum." (Title.) All these are in 4to., and so alike that only a careful comparison with the different copies actually before one will prove that they are not of the same edition. Separately, the best practised could not say to which the sheets of an imperfect

copy would belong. They are exactly similar in type, in paper; in arrangement: and more than this, not only do the catchwords correspond in almost every page, but where owing to some error corrected it happens that they do not, the succeeding page by management is made to take up the agreement again. The like object was aimed at in other books of the same period, and there are many of which several

books of the western Church which followed the council of Trent some of these were omitted: and a more exact arrangement and distribution followed. This was observed in two editions of the "Manuale ad usum Sarum" published at Douay, in 4to. 1604, and 8vo. 1610. I need scarcely say that these two volumes were intended for the use of the priests and congregations who did not at that date conform to the reformed church of England. They place first the orders of baptism, churching of women, marriage, visitation of the sick, extreme unction, and burial; after which come the order of confirmation and seventeen offices of benediction. The rest of the manual, as it was fifty years before, is omitted. The edition of 1610 adds a few pages of notes; and I believe is the last authorised edition printed of the manual which with some variations


editions were put forth, all so alike that bibliographers who have examined them apart have set them down as belonging to one and the same edition. example: Bonner's Necessary doctrine, and Homilies, and bishop Watson's Holsome doctrine. Or, the common Prayer books of Edward the sixth. There are two editions dated in the month of June, 1549: and Grafton and Whitchurch printed, each, two in folio of 1552. It may be said that all this is of little or no importance: but it is not so. The fact of more than one edition of any book proves the demand for it and its popularity. Again, the editions may

look the same exactly because the type, and pagination, and signatures, and catchwords are so; but in fact very considerable differences may exist. This is remarkably the case with the Necessary doctrine of bishop Bonner. The second edition contains a table of errata corrected, which is not to be found in the first. And, once more, the common error of supposing only a single edition of a book to have been published (I do not hesitate to speak without doubt in the hope that more care may be taken for the future) has led to the throwing out of so-called duplicates from public libraries.

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